KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04261Help
Entry
hsa04261                    Pathway                                

Name
Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Cardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, and alpha-1C).  In the human heart the beta-1-AR is the pre- dominate receptor. Acute sympathetic stimulation of cardiac beta-1-ARs induces positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, the most effective mechanism to acutely increase output of the heart, by coupling to Gs, formation of cAMP by adenylyl cyclase (AC), and PKA- dependent phosphorylation of various target proteins (e.g., ryanodine receptor [RyR]; phospholamban [PLB], troponin I [TnI], and the L-type Ca2+ channel [LTCC]). Chronic beta-1-AR stimulation is detrimental and induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. beta-2-AR coupled to Gs exerts a proapoptotic action as well as beta-1-AR, while beta-2-AR coupled to Gi exerts an antiapoptotic action.
Class
Organismal Systems; Circulatory system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Adrenergic signaling in cardiomyocytes
hsa04261

All organismsOrtholog table
Drug
D00076  
Noradrenaline (JP16)
D00095  
Adrenaline (JP16)
D00124  
Ephedrine (USP)
D00235  
Atenolol (JP16/USP/INN)
D00255  
Carvedilol (JAN/USAN/INN)
D00378  
Timolol (USAN)
D00432  
Nadolol (JP16/USP/INN)
D00483  
Propranolol hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D00485  
Pseudoephedrine hydrochloride (USP)
D00513  
Pindolol (JP16/USP/INN)
D00597  
Acebutolol hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D00598  
Betaxolol hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D00599  
Carteolol hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D00600  
Labetalol hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D00601  
Metoprolol tartrate (JP16/USP)
D00602  
Penbutolol sulfate (JP16/USP)
D00603  
Timolol maleate (JP16/USP)
D00632  
Dobutamine hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D00634  
Bisoprolol fumarate (JP16/USP)
D00635  
Metoprolol succinate (USP)
D00636  
Amiodarone hydrochloride (JP16/USAN)
D00640  
Propafenone hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D00644  
Esmolol hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D00684  
Bitolterol mesilate (JAN)
D00685  
Orciprenaline sulfate (JP16)
D00686  
Pirbuterol acetate (USAN)
D00687  
Salmeterol xinafoate (JAN/USAN)
D00688  
Terbutaline sulfate (JP16/USP)
D01017  
Dipivefrin hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01025  
Levobunolol hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01026  
Sotalol hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01182  
Alprenolol hydrochloride (JP16/USAN)
D01263  
Ritodrine hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D01349  
Pirbuterol hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01360  
Clenbuterol hydrochloride (JAN/USP)
D01362  
Tulobuterol hydrochloride (JP16)
D01369  
Bevantolol hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01373  
Formoterol fumarate (USAN)
D01386  
Ephedrine hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D01390  
dl-Isoprenaline hydrochloride (JAN)
D01428  
Fenoterol hydrobromide (JAN)
D01444  
Bunitrolol hydrochloride (JAN)
D01454  
Bupranolol hydrochloride (JP16)
D01469  
Amosulalol hydrochloride (JP16)
D01471  
Esatenolol (JAN/INN)
D01492  
Bucumolol hydrochloride (JP16)
D01504  
Bufetolol hydrochloride (JP16)
D01512  
Befunolol hydrochloride (JAN)
D01543  
Nylidrin hydrochloride (JAN)
D01589  
Mabuterol hydrochloride (JAN)
D01691  
Nipradilol (JAN/INN)
D01741  
Celiprolol hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01748  
Isoxsuprine hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D01794  
Bopindolol malonate (JAN)
D01795  
Tilisolol hydrochloride (JAN)
D01806  
Oxprenolol hydrochloride (JP16/USP)
D01830  
Arotinolol hydrochloride (JP16)
D01835  
Clorprenaline hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D01847  
Landiolol hydrochloride (JAN)
D01958  
Indenolol hydrochloride (JP16)
D01978  
Trimetoquinol hydrochloride
D02066  
Isoprenaline sulfate (JAN)
D02081  
Metipranolol hydrochloride
D02093  
Isoetharine hydrochloride (USP)
D02109  
dl-Methylephedrine hydrochloride (JP16)
D02150  
l-Isoprenaline hydrochloride (JP16)
D02151  
Tulobuterol (JAN/INN)
D02281  
Levalbuterol hydrochloride (USAN)
D02338  
Acebutolol (USAN/INN)
D02342  
Bisoprolol (JAN/USAN/INN)
D02349  
Dipivefrin (USAN)
D02358  
Metoprolol (USAN/INN)
D02359  
Ritodrine (USAN/INN)
D02374  
Metipranolol (USAN/INN)
D02389  
Primidolol (USAN/INN)
D02396  
Hexoprenaline sulfate (USAN)
D02404  
Procaterol hydrochloride (USAN)
D02537  
Dronedarone (INN)
D02614  
Denopamine (JAN/INN)
D02702  
Talibegron hydrochloride (USAN)
D02765  
Adaprolol maleate (USAN)
D02834  
Alprenoxime hydrochloride (USAN)
D02910  
Amiodarone (USAN/INN)
D02976  
Arbutamine hydrochloride (USAN)
D02981  
Arformoterol tartrate (USAN)
D03170  
Bucindolol hydrochloride (USAN)
D03177  
Bunolol hydrochloride (USAN)
D03195  
Butopamine (USAN/INN)
D03198  
Butoxamine hydrochloride (USAN)
D03402  
Carbuterol hydrochloride (USAN)
D03415  
Carvedilol phosphate hydrate (JAN)
D03449  
Cetamolol hydrochloride (USAN)
D03490  
Cicloprolol hydrochloride (USAN)
D03502  
Cimaterol (USAN/INN)
D03587  
Colterol mesylate (USAN)
D03729  
Dexpropranolol hydrochloride (USAN)
D03759  
Diacetolol hydrochloride (USAN)
D03879  
Dobutamine (USP/INN)
D03880  
Dobutamine lactobionate (USAN)
D03881  
Dobutamine tartrate (USP)
D03891  
Dopexamine (USAN/INN)
D03914  
Dronedarone hydrochloride (USAN)
D04018  
Ephedrine sulfate (USP)
D04157  
Fenoterol (USAN/INN)
D04190  
Flestolol sulfate (USAN)
D04625  
Isoetharine (USP)
D04626  
Isoetharine mesylate (USP)
D04701  
Levalbuterol sulfate (USAN)
D04703  
Levalbuterol tartrate (USAN)
D04708  
Levdobutamine lactobionate (USAN)
D04710  
Levobetaxolol hydrochloride (USAN)
D04888  
Medroxalol (USAN/INN)
D04889  
Medroxalol hydrochloride (USAN)
D04954  
Metaproterenol polistirex (USAN)
D05011  
Metoprolol fumarate (USP)
D05037  
Trimetoquinol hydrochloride hydrate (JP16)
D05127  
Nebivolol (USAN/INN)
D05206  
Norepinephrine bitartrate (USP)
D05277  
Formoterol fumarate hydrate (JP16)
D05345  
Pamatolol sulfate (USAN)
D05366  
Procaterol hydrochloride hydrate (JP16)
D05476  
Picumeterol fumarate (USAN)
D05587  
Practolol (USAN)
D05606  
Prenalterol hydrochloride (USAN)
D05648  
Pseudoephedrine polistirex (USAN)
D05649  
Pseudoephedrine sulfate (USP)
D05691  
Ractopamine hydrochloride (USAN)
D05718  
Reproterol hydrochloride (USAN)
D05730  
Rimiterol hydrobromide (USAN)
D05792  
Salmeterol (USAN/INN)
D05902  
Soterenol hydrochloride (USAN)
D06328  
Xamoterol (USAN)
D06329  
Xamoterol fumarate (USAN)
D06374  
Zinterol hydrochloride (USAN)
D06622  
Nebivolol hydrochloride (USAN)
D06646  
Epanolol (USAN/INN)
D07156  
Alprenolol (INN)
D07181  
Mepindolol (INN)
D07182  
Tertatolol (INN)
D07183  
Cloranolol (INN)
D07184  
Talinolol (INN)
D07377  
Bambuterol (INN)
D07451  
Amosulalol (INN)
D07463  
Arformoterol (INN)
D07465  
Arotinolol (INN)
D07526  
Betaxolol (INN)
D07534  
Bitolterol (INN)
D07537  
Bopindolol (INN)
D07551  
Buphenine (INN)
D07590  
Bupranolol (INN)
D07608  
Carazolol (INN)
D07624  
Carteolol (INN)
D07660  
Celiprolol (INN)
D07713  
Clenbuterol (INN)
D07916  
Esmolol (INN)
D07990  
Formoterol (INN)
D08039  
Hexoprenaline (INN)
D08074  
Penbutolol (INN)
D08078  
Indenolol (INN)
D08090  
Isoprenaline (INN)
D08092  
Isoxsuprine (INN)
D08093  
Isoxsuprine lactate
D08106  
Labetalol (INN)
D08206  
Methylephedrine (BAN)
D08284  
Norepinephrine hydrochoride
D08300  
Orciprenaline (INN)
D08318  
Oxprenolol (INN)
D08387  
Pirbuterol (INN)
D08424  
Procaterol (INN)
D08435  
Propafenone (INN)
D08443  
Propranolol (INN)
D08449  
Pseudoephedrine (INN)
D08474  
Reproterol (INN)
D08525  
Sotalol (INN)
D08570  
Terbutaline (INN)
D08572  
Tertatolol hydrochloride
D08598  
Tilisolol (INN)
D08600  
Timolol (INN)
D08629  
Tretoquinol (INN)
D08945  
Milveterol hydrochloride (USAN)
D09318  
Indacaterol (USAN/INN)
D09319  
Indacaterol maleate (JAN/USAN)
D09696  
Vilanterol (USAN)
D09697  
Vilanterol trifenatate (JAN/USAN)
D09794  
Norepinephrine hydrochloride (JAN)
D09842  
dl-Methylephedrine saccharinate (JAN)
D09843  
Beradilol monoethyl maleate (JAN)
D10020  
Olodaterol hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D10145  
Olodaterol (USAN/INN)
D10219  
Abediterol (USAN/INN)
D10220  
Abediterol napadisylate (USAN)
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
153  
ADRB1; adrenoceptor beta 1 [KO:K04141]
154  
ADRB2; adrenoceptor beta 2, surface [KO:K04142]
2778  
GNAS; GNAS complex locus [KO:K04632]
107  
ADCY1; adenylate cyclase 1 (brain) [KO:K08041] [EC:4.6.1.1]
108  
ADCY2; adenylate cyclase 2 (brain) [KO:K08042] [EC:4.6.1.1]
109  
ADCY3; adenylate cyclase 3 [KO:K08043] [EC:4.6.1.1]
196883  
ADCY4; adenylate cyclase 4 [KO:K08044] [EC:4.6.1.1]
111  
ADCY5; adenylate cyclase 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:4.6.1.1]
112  
ADCY6; adenylate cyclase 6 [KO:K08046] [EC:4.6.1.1]
113  
ADCY7; adenylate cyclase 7 [KO:K08047] [EC:4.6.1.1]
114  
ADCY8; adenylate cyclase 8 (brain) [KO:K08048] [EC:4.6.1.1]
115  
ADCY9; adenylate cyclase 9 [KO:K08049] [EC:4.6.1.1]
5566  
PRKACA; protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5567  
PRKACB; protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, beta [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5568  
PRKACG; protein kinase, cAMP-dependent, catalytic, gamma [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
5613  
PRKX; protein kinase, X-linked [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
476  
ATP1A1; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 1 polypeptide [KO:K01539] [EC:3.6.3.9]
477  
ATP1A2; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 2 polypeptide [KO:K01539] [EC:3.6.3.9]
478  
ATP1A3; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 3 polypeptide [KO:K01539] [EC:3.6.3.9]
480  
ATP1A4; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, alpha 4 polypeptide [KO:K01539] [EC:3.6.3.9]
23439  
ATP1B4; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 4 polypeptide [KO:K01540]
481  
ATP1B1; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 1 polypeptide [KO:K01540]
482  
ATP1B2; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 2 polypeptide [KO:K01540]
483  
ATP1B3; ATPase, Na+/K+ transporting, beta 3 polypeptide [KO:K01540]
486  
FXYD2; FXYD domain containing ion transport regulator 2 [KO:K01538]
6548  
SLC9A1; solute carrier family 9, subfamily A (NHE1, cation proton antiporter 1), member 1 [KO:K05742]
3784  
KCNQ1; potassium voltage-gated channel, KQT-like subfamily, member 1 [KO:K04926]
3753  
KCNE1; potassium voltage-gated channel, Isk-related family, member 1 [KO:K04894]
490  
ATP2B1; ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 1 [KO:K05850] [EC:3.6.3.8]
492  
ATP2B3; ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 3 [KO:K05850] [EC:3.6.3.8]
493  
ATP2B4; ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 4 [KO:K05850] [EC:3.6.3.8]
491  
ATP2B2; ATPase, Ca++ transporting, plasma membrane 2 [KO:K05850] [EC:3.6.3.8]
6331  
SCN5A; sodium channel, voltage-gated, type V, alpha subunit [KO:K04838]
6332  
SCN7A; sodium channel, voltage-gated, type VII, alpha subunit [KO:K04839]
6324  
SCN1B; sodium channel, voltage-gated, type I, beta subunit [KO:K04845]
6330  
SCN4B; sodium channel, voltage-gated, type IV, beta subunit [KO:K04848]
775  
CACNA1C; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit [KO:K04850]
776  
CACNA1D; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit [KO:K04851]
778  
CACNA1F; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit [KO:K04853]
779  
CACNA1S; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit [KO:K04857]
782  
CACNB1; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 1 subunit [KO:K04862]
783  
CACNB2; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 2 subunit [KO:K04863]
784  
CACNB3; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 3 subunit [KO:K04864]
785  
CACNB4; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, beta 4 subunit [KO:K04865]
781  
CACNA2D1; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 1 [KO:K04858]
9254  
CACNA2D2; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 2 [KO:K04859]
55799  
CACNA2D3; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 3 [KO:K04860]
93589  
CACNA2D4; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha 2/delta subunit 4 [KO:K04861]
786  
CACNG1; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 1 [KO:K04866]
10369  
CACNG2; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 2 [KO:K04867]
10368  
CACNG3; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 3 [KO:K04868]
27092  
CACNG4; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 4 [KO:K04869]
27091  
CACNG5; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 5 [KO:K04870]
59285  
CACNG6; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 6 [KO:K04871]
59284  
CACNG7; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 7 [KO:K04872]
59283  
CACNG8; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, gamma subunit 8 [KO:K04873]
810  
CALML3; calmodulin-like 3 [KO:K02183]
805  
CALM2; calmodulin 2 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
808  
CALM3; calmodulin 3 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
801  
CALM1; calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
163688  
CALML6; calmodulin-like 6 [KO:K02183]
51806  
CALML5; calmodulin-like 5 [KO:K02183]
815  
CAMK2A; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
817  
CAMK2D; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II delta [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
816  
CAMK2B; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II beta [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
818  
CAMK2G; calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II gamma [KO:K04515] [EC:2.7.11.17]
6262  
RYR2; ryanodine receptor 2 (cardiac) [KO:K04962]
5515  
PPP2CA; protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme [KO:K04382] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5516  
PPP2CB; protein phosphatase 2, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme [KO:K04382] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5519  
PPP2R1B; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, beta [KO:K03456]
5518  
PPP2R1A; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit A, alpha [KO:K03456]
5520  
PPP2R2A; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, alpha [KO:K04354]
5521  
PPP2R2B; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, beta [KO:K04354]
5522  
PPP2R2C; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, gamma [KO:K04354]
55844  
PPP2R2D; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B, delta [KO:K04354]
28227  
PPP2R3B; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', beta [KO:K11583]
55012  
PPP2R3C; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', gamma [KO:K11583]
5523  
PPP2R3A; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B'', alpha [KO:K11583]
5526  
PPP2R5B; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', beta [KO:K11584]
5527  
PPP2R5C; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', gamma [KO:K11584]
5528  
PPP2R5D; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', delta [KO:K11584]
5529  
PPP2R5E; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', epsilon isoform [KO:K11584]
5525  
PPP2R5A; protein phosphatase 2, regulatory subunit B', alpha [KO:K11584]
5499  
PPP1CA; protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme [KO:K06269] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5500  
PPP1CB; protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme [KO:K06269] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5501  
PPP1CC; protein phosphatase 1, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme [KO:K06269] [EC:3.1.3.16]
7134  
TNNC1; troponin C type 1 (slow) [KO:K05865]
7137  
TNNI3; troponin I type 3 (cardiac) [KO:K12044]
7139  
TNNT2; troponin T type 2 (cardiac) [KO:K12045]
7168  
TPM1; tropomyosin 1 (alpha) [KO:K10373]
7169  
TPM2; tropomyosin 2 (beta) [KO:K10374]
7170  
TPM3; tropomyosin 3 [KO:K09290]
7171  
TPM4; tropomyosin 4 [KO:K10375]
70  
ACTC1; actin, alpha, cardiac muscle 1 [KO:K12314]
4625  
MYH7; myosin, heavy chain 7, cardiac muscle, beta [KO:K17751]
4624  
MYH6; myosin, heavy chain 6, cardiac muscle, alpha [KO:K17751]
4633  
MYL2; myosin, light chain 2, regulatory, cardiac, slow [KO:K10351]
4634  
MYL3; myosin, light chain 3, alkali [KO:K12749]
4635  
MYL4; myosin, light chain 4, alkali [KO:K12750]
5350  
PLN; phospholamban [KO:K05852]
185  
AGTR1; angiotensin II receptor, type 1 [KO:K04166]
186  
AGTR2; angiotensin II receptor, type 2 [KO:K04167]
148  
ADRA1A; adrenoceptor alpha 1A [KO:K04135]
147  
ADRA1B; adrenoceptor alpha 1B [KO:K04136]
146  
ADRA1D; adrenoceptor alpha 1D [KO:K04137]
2776  
GNAQ; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), q polypeptide [KO:K04634]
23236  
PLCB1; phospholipase C, beta 1 (phosphoinositide-specific) [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5330  
PLCB2; phospholipase C, beta 2 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5331  
PLCB3; phospholipase C, beta 3 (phosphatidylinositol-specific) [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5332  
PLCB4; phospholipase C, beta 4 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5502  
PPP1R1A; protein phosphatase 1, regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 1A [KO:K08050]
5594  
MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  
MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
9252  
RPS6KA5; ribosomal protein S6 kinase, 90kDa, polypeptide 5 [KO:K04445] [EC:2.7.11.1]
1385  
CREB1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 [KO:K05870]
1386  
ATF2; activating transcription factor 2 [KO:K04450]
468  
ATF4; activating transcription factor 4 [KO:K04374]
10488  
CREB3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 [KO:K09048]
90993  
CREB3L1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 1 [KO:K09048]
64764  
CREB3L2; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 2 [KO:K09048]
84699  
CREB3L3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 3 [KO:K09048]
148327  
CREB3L4; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3-like 4 [KO:K09048]
9586  
CREB5; cAMP responsive element binding protein 5 [KO:K09047]
1388  
ATF6B; activating transcription factor 6 beta [KO:K09049]
1390  
CREM; cAMP responsive element modulator [KO:K09052]
596  
BCL2; B-cell CLL/lymphoma 2 [KO:K02161]
10411  
RAPGEF3; Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 3 [KO:K08014]
11069  
RAPGEF4; Rap guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 4 [KO:K04351]
5600  
MAPK11; mitogen-activated protein kinase 11 [KO:K04441] [EC:2.7.11.24]
6300  
MAPK12; mitogen-activated protein kinase 12 [KO:K04441] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5603  
MAPK13; mitogen-activated protein kinase 13 [KO:K04441] [EC:2.7.11.24]
1432  
MAPK14; mitogen-activated protein kinase 14 [KO:K04441] [EC:2.7.11.24]
2770  
GNAI1; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 1 [KO:K04630]
2773  
GNAI3; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 3 [KO:K04630]
2771  
GNAI2; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), alpha inhibiting activity polypeptide 2 [KO:K04630]
5290  
PIK3CA; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5293  
PIK3CD; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5291  
PIK3CB; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5294  
PIK3CG; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
5295  
PIK3R1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 1 (alpha) [KO:K02649]
23533  
PIK3R5; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 5 [KO:K02649]
5296  
PIK3R2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 2 (beta) [KO:K02649]
8503  
PIK3R3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase, regulatory subunit 3 (gamma) [KO:K02649]
207  
AKT1; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
208  
AKT2; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
10000  
AKT3; v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
488  
ATP2A2; ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, slow twitch 2 [KO:K05853] [EC:3.6.3.8]
5578  
PRKCA; protein kinase C, alpha [KO:K02677] [EC:2.7.11.13]
6546  
SLC8A1; solute carrier family 8 (sodium/calcium exchanger), member 1 [KO:K05849]
Compound
C00076  
Calcium cation
C00080  
H+
C00165  
Diacylglycerol
C00238  
Potassium cation
C00547  
L-Noradrenaline
C00575  
3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C00788  
L-Adrenaline
C01245  
D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C01330  
Sodium cation
C02135  
Angiotensin II
C07056  
Isoproterenol
Reference
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Grimm M, Brown JH
  Title
Beta-adrenergic receptor signaling in the heart: role of CaMKII.
  Journal
J Mol Cell Cardiol 48:322-30 (2010)
Reference
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Yang JH, Saucerman JJ
  Title
Computational models reduce complexity and accelerate insight into cardiac signaling networks.
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Circ Res 108:85-97 (2011)
Reference
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Schaub MC, Hefti MA, Zaugg M
  Title
Integration of calcium with the signaling network in cardiac myocytes.
  Journal
J Mol Cell Cardiol 41:183-214 (2006)
Reference
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Taggart P, Boyett MR, Logantha S, Lambiase PD
  Title
Anger, emotion, and arrhythmias: from brain to heart.
  Journal
Front Physiol 2:67 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Bers DM
  Title
Calcium cycling and signaling in cardiac myocytes.
  Journal
Annu Rev Physiol 70:23-49 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Soltis AR, Saucerman JJ
  Title
Synergy between CaMKII substrates and beta-adrenergic signaling in regulation of  cardiac myocyte Ca(2+) handling.
  Journal
Biophys J 99:2038-47 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Wallukat G
  Title
The beta-adrenergic receptors.
  Journal
Herz 27:683-90 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Xiao RP
  Title
Beta-adrenergic signaling in the heart: dual coupling of the beta2-adrenergic receptor to G(s) and G(i) proteins.
  Journal
Sci STKE 2001:re15 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Xiao RP, Cheng H, Zhou YY, Kuschel M, Lakatta EG
  Title
Recent advances in cardiac beta(2)-adrenergic signal transduction.
  Journal
Circ Res 85:1092-100 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Zheng M, Zhu W, Han Q, Xiao RP
  Title
Emerging concepts and therapeutic implications of beta-adrenergic receptor subtype signaling.
  Journal
Pharmacol Ther 108:257-68 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Kuzumoto M, Takeuchi A, Nakai H, Oka C, Noma A, Matsuoka S
  Title
Simulation analysis of intracellular Na+ and Cl- homeostasis during beta 1-adrenergic stimulation of cardiac myocyte.
  Journal
Prog Biophys Mol Biol 96:171-86 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Bers DM
  Title
Cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.
  Journal
Nature 415:198-205 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Ho D, Yan L, Iwatsubo K, Vatner DE, Vatner SF
  Title
Modulation of beta-adrenergic receptor signaling in heart failure and longevity:  targeting adenylyl cyclase type 5.
  Journal
Heart Fail Rev 15:495-512 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Saucerman JJ, McCulloch AD
  Title
Mechanistic systems models of cell signaling networks: a case study of myocyte adrenergic regulation.
  Journal
Prog Biophys Mol Biol 85:261-78 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Yano M, Ikeda Y, Matsuzaki M
  Title
Altered intracellular Ca2+ handling in heart failure.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 115:556-64 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Wehrens XH, Marks AR
  Title
Novel therapeutic approaches for heart failure by normalizing calcium cycling.
  Journal
Nat Rev Drug Discov 3:565-73 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Triposkiadis F, Karayannis G, Giamouzis G, Skoularigis J, Louridas G, Butler J
  Title
The sympathetic nervous system in heart failure physiology, pathophysiology, and  clinical implications.
  Journal
J Am Coll Cardiol 54:1747-62 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Barry SP, Davidson SM, Townsend PA
  Title
Molecular regulation of cardiac hypertrophy.
  Journal
Int J Biochem Cell Biol 40:2023-39 (2008)
KO pathway
 

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