KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa04975Help
Entry
hsa04975                    Pathway                                

Name
Fat digestion and absorption - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Fat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, dietary TAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acids (FA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) by pancreatic lipase. These products are then emulsified with the help of phospholipids (PL) and bile acids (BA) present in bile to form micelles. Free FAs and MAGs are taken up by the enterocyte where they are rapidly resynthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form TAG. PLs from the diet as well as bile - mainly LPA - too are absorbed by the enterocyte and are acylated to form phosphatidic acid (PA), which is also converted into TAG. Absorbed cholesterol (CL) is acylated to cholesterol esters (CE). Within the ER, TAG joins CE and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) to form chylomicrons that enter circulation through the lymph.
Class
Organismal Systems; Digestive system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Fat digestion and absorption
hsa04975

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00845  
Familial amyloidosis
H00930  
Hypoalphalipoproteinemia
H01108  
CD36 deficiency
H01213  
Gallbladder disease
H01270  
Familial hypobetalipoproteinemia (FHBL)
Drug
D01966  
Ezetimibe (JAN/USAN/INN)
D04028  
Orlistat (JAN/USAN/INN)
D06283  
Varespladib sodium (USAN)
D08107  
Varespladib (USAN/INN)
D08221  
Varespladib methyl (USAN)
D09637  
Lomitapide (USAN/INN)
D09638  
Lomitapide mesylate (USAN)
D10657  
Pradigastat sodium (USAN)
D10664  
Pradigastat (USAN)
Other DBs
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
8513  
LIPF; lipase F, gastric type [KO:K14452] [EC:3.1.1.3]
5406  
PNLIP; pancreatic lipase [KO:K14073] [EC:3.1.1.3]
5407  
PNLIPRP1; pancreatic lipase related protein 1 [KO:K14074] [EC:3.1.1.3]
5408  
PNLIPRP2; pancreatic lipase related protein 2 (gene/pseudogene) [KO:K14075] [EC:3.1.1.3]
1056  
CEL; carboxyl ester lipase [KO:K12298] [EC:3.1.1.3 3.1.1.13]
8399  
PLA2G10; phospholipase A2 group X [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
26279  
PLA2G2D; phospholipase A2 group IID [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
30814  
PLA2G2E; phospholipase A2 group IIE [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
50487  
PLA2G3; phospholipase A2 group III [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
64600  
PLA2G2F; phospholipase A2 group IIF [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
81579  
PLA2G12A; phospholipase A2 group XIIA [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
84647  
PLA2G12B; phospholipase A2 group XIIB [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
5319  
PLA2G1B; phospholipase A2 group IB [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
5322  
PLA2G5; phospholipase A2 group V [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
5320  
PLA2G2A; phospholipase A2 group IIA [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
391013  
PLA2G2C; phospholipase A2 group IIC [KO:K01047] [EC:3.1.1.4]
1208  
CLPS; colipase [KO:K14460]
948  
CD36; CD36 molecule [KO:K06259]
2806  
GOT2; glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase 2 [KO:K14455] [EC:2.6.1.1]
2169  
FABP2; fatty acid binding protein 2 [KO:K08751]
2168  
FABP1; fatty acid binding protein 1 [KO:K08750]
10554  
AGPAT1; 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 1 [KO:K13509] [EC:2.3.1.51]
10555  
AGPAT2; 1-acylglycerol-3-phosphate O-acyltransferase 2 [KO:K13509] [EC:2.3.1.51]
8611  
PLPP1; phospholipid phosphatase 1 [KO:K01080] [EC:3.1.3.4]
8613  
PLPP3; phospholipid phosphatase 3 [KO:K01080] [EC:3.1.3.4]
8612  
PLPP2; phospholipid phosphatase 2 [KO:K01080] [EC:3.1.3.4]
80168  
MOGAT2; monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 [KO:K14457] [EC:2.3.1.22]
346606  
MOGAT3; monoacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 3 [KO:K14456] [EC:2.3.1.22 2.3.1.20]
8694  
DGAT1; diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 [KO:K11155] [EC:2.3.1.76 2.3.1.75 2.3.1.20]
84649  
DGAT2; diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 2 [KO:K11160] [EC:2.3.1.75 2.3.1.20]
949  
SCARB1; scavenger receptor class B member 1 [KO:K13885]
29881  
NPC1L1; NPC1 like intracellular cholesterol transporter 1 [KO:K14461]
64240  
ABCG5; ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 5 [KO:K05683]
64241  
ABCG8; ATP binding cassette subfamily G member 8 [KO:K05684]
337  
APOA4; apolipoprotein A4 [KO:K08760]
338  
APOB; apolipoprotein B [KO:K14462]
4547  
MTTP; microsomal triglyceride transfer protein [KO:K14463]
335  
APOA1; apolipoprotein A1 [KO:K08757]
19  
ABCA1; ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1 [KO:K05641]
10999  
SLC27A4; solute carrier family 27 member 4 [KO:K08745] [EC:6.2.1.-]
39  
ACAT2; acetyl-CoA acetyltransferase 2 [KO:K00626] [EC:2.3.1.9]
Compound
C00010  
CoA
C00040  
Acyl-CoA
C00162  
Fatty acid
C00165  
Diacylglycerol
C00187  
Cholesterol
C00416  
Phosphatidate
C00422  
Triacylglycerol
C00681  
1-Acyl-sn-glycerol 3-phosphate
C00865  
Phospholipid
C01558  
Bile salt
C01885  
1-Acylglycerol
C02112  
2-Acylglycerol
C02530  
Cholesterol ester
Reference
  Authors
Iqbal J, Hussain MM
  Title
Intestinal lipid absorption.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 296:E1183-94 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Goodman BE
  Title
Insights into digestion and absorption of major nutrients in humans.
  Journal
Adv Physiol Educ 34:44-53 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Niot I, Poirier H, Tran TT, Besnard P
  Title
Intestinal absorption of long-chain fatty acids: evidence and uncertainties.
  Journal
Prog Lipid Res 48:101-15 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Shi Y, Burn P
  Title
Lipid metabolic enzymes: emerging drug targets for the treatment of obesity.
  Journal
Nat Rev Drug Discov 3:695-710 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Mansbach CM, Siddiqi SA
  Title
The biogenesis of chylomicrons.
  Journal
Annu Rev Physiol 72:315-33 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Shi Y, Cheng D
  Title
Beyond triglyceride synthesis: the dynamic functional roles of MGAT and DGAT enzymes in energy metabolism.
  Journal
Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab 297:E10-8 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Ros E
  Title
Intestinal absorption of triglyceride and cholesterol. Dietary and pharmacological inhibition to reduce cardiovascular risk.
  Journal
Atherosclerosis 151:357-79 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Yen CL, Farese RV Jr
  Title
MGAT2, a monoacylglycerol acyltransferase expressed in the small intestine.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 278:18532-7 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Levy E, Spahis S, Sinnett D, Peretti N, Maupas-Schwalm F, Delvin E, Lambert M, Lavoie MA
  Title
Intestinal cholesterol transport proteins: an update and beyond.
  Journal
Curr Opin Lipidol 18:310-8 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Williams KJ
  Title
Molecular processes that handle -- and mishandle -- dietary lipids.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 118:3247-59 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Lu K, Lee MH, Patel SB
  Title
Dietary cholesterol absorption; more than just bile.
  Journal
Trends Endocrinol Metab 12:314-20 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Klett EL, Patel SB
  Title
Biomedicine. Will the real cholesterol transporter please stand up.
  Journal
Science 303:1149-50 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Wang DQ
  Title
Regulation of intestinal cholesterol absorption.
  Journal
Annu Rev Physiol 69:221-48 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Patel JP, Brocks DR
  Title
The effect of oral lipids and circulating lipoproteins on the metabolism of drugs.
  Journal
Expert Opin Drug Metab Toxicol 5:1385-98 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Hussain MM, Fatma S, Pan X, Iqbal J
  Title
Intestinal lipoprotein assembly.
  Journal
Curr Opin Lipidol 16:281-5 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Kindel T, Lee DM, Tso P
  Title
The mechanism of the formation and secretion of chylomicrons.
  Journal
Atheroscler Suppl 11:11-6 (2010)
KO pathway
 

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