KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa05010Help
Entry
hsa05010                    Pathway                                

Name
Alzheimer's disease - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic disorder that slowly destroys neurons and causes serious cognitive disability. AD is associated with senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs). Amyloid-beta (Abeta), a major component of senile plaques, has various pathological effects on cell and organelle function. The extracellular Abeta oligomers may activate caspases through activation of cell surface death receptors. Alternatively, intracellular Abeta may contribute to pathology by facilitating tau hyper-phosphorylation, disrupting mitochondria function, and triggering calcium dysfunction. To date genetic studies have revealed four genes that may be linked to autosomal dominant or familial early onset AD (FAD). These four genes include: amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PS1), presenilin 2 (PS2) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE). All mutations associated with APP and PS proteins can lead to an increase in the production of Abeta peptides, specfically the more amyloidogenic form, Abeta42. FAD-linked PS1 mutation downregulates the unfolded protein response and leads to vulnerability to ER stress.
Class
Human Diseases; Neurodegenerative diseases
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Alzheimer's disease
hsa05010

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00056  
Alzheimer's disease (AD)
Drug
D03100  
Besonprodil (USAN)
D04905  
Memantine hydrochloride (JAN/USAN)
D08174  
Memantine (INN)
D08869  
Begacestat (USAN/INN)
D09010  
Tarenflurbil (USAN/INN)
D09377  
Semagacestat (USAN/INN)
D09869  
Avagacestat (USAN)
D09917  
Latrepirdine (USAN/INN)
D09918  
Latrepirdine dihydrochloride (USAN)
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
102  
ADAM10; ADAM metallopeptidase domain 10 [KO:K06704] [EC:3.4.24.81]
6868  
ADAM17; ADAM metallopeptidase domain 17 [KO:K06059] [EC:3.4.24.86]
351  
APP; amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein [KO:K04520]
8883  
NAE1; NEDD8 activating enzyme E1 subunit 1 [KO:K04532]
322  
APBB1; amyloid beta (A4) precursor protein-binding, family B, member 1 (Fe65) [KO:K04529]
2597  
GAPDH; glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase [KO:K00134] [EC:1.2.1.12]
23621  
BACE1; beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 1 [KO:K04521] [EC:3.4.23.46]
25825  
BACE2; beta-site APP-cleaving enzyme 2 [KO:K07747] [EC:3.4.23.45]
55851  
PSENEN; presenilin enhancer gamma secretase subunit [KO:K06170]
5663  
PSEN1; presenilin 1 [KO:K04505] [EC:3.4.23.-]
5664  
PSEN2; presenilin 2 [KO:K04522] [EC:3.4.23.-]
23385  
NCSTN; nicastrin [KO:K06171]
51107  
APH1A; APH1A gamma secretase subunit [KO:K06172]
83464  
APH1B; APH1B gamma secretase subunit [KO:K06172]
3416  
IDE; insulin-degrading enzyme [KO:K01408] [EC:3.4.24.56]
4311  
MME; membrane metallo-endopeptidase [KO:K01389] [EC:3.4.24.11]
4723  
NDUFV1; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein 1, 51kDa [KO:K03942] [EC:1.6.99.3 1.6.5.3]
4729  
NDUFV2; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein 2, 24kDa [KO:K03943] [EC:1.6.99.3 1.6.5.3]
4731  
NDUFV3; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) flavoprotein 3, 10kDa [KO:K03944]
4694  
NDUFA1; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 1, 7.5kDa [KO:K03945]
4695  
NDUFA2; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 2, 8kDa [KO:K03946]
4696  
NDUFA3; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 3, 9kDa [KO:K03947]
4697  
NDUFA4; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 4, 9kDa [KO:K03948]
56901  
NDUFA4L2; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 4-like 2 [KO:K03948]
4698  
NDUFA5; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 5 [KO:K03949]
4700  
NDUFA6; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 6, 14kDa [KO:K03950]
4701  
NDUFA7; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 7, 14.5kDa [KO:K03951]
4702  
NDUFA8; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 8, 19kDa [KO:K03952]
4704  
NDUFA9; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 9, 39kDa [KO:K03953]
4705  
NDUFA10; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 10, 42kDa [KO:K03954]
4706  
NDUFAB1; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1, alpha/beta subcomplex, 1, 8kDa [KO:K03955]
126328  
NDUFA11; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 11, 14.7kDa [KO:K03956]
55967  
NDUFA12; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 12 [KO:K11352]
51079  
NDUFA13; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 alpha subcomplex, 13 [KO:K11353]
4707  
NDUFB1; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 1, 7kDa [KO:K03957]
4708  
NDUFB2; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 2, 8kDa [KO:K03958]
4709  
NDUFB3; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 3, 12kDa [KO:K03959]
4710  
NDUFB4; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 4, 15kDa [KO:K03960]
4711  
NDUFB5; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 5, 16kDa [KO:K03961]
4712  
NDUFB6; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 6, 17kDa [KO:K03962]
4713  
NDUFB7; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 7, 18kDa [KO:K03963]
4714  
NDUFB8; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 8, 19kDa [KO:K03964]
4715  
NDUFB9; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 9, 22kDa [KO:K03965]
4716  
NDUFB10; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 10, 22kDa [KO:K03966]
54539  
NDUFB11; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1 beta subcomplex, 11, 17.3kDa [KO:K11351]
4719  
NDUFS1; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 1, 75kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) [KO:K03934] [EC:1.6.99.3 1.6.5.3]
4720  
NDUFS2; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 2, 49kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) [KO:K03935] [EC:1.6.99.3 1.6.5.3]
4722  
NDUFS3; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 3, 30kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) [KO:K03936] [EC:1.6.99.3 1.6.5.3]
4724  
NDUFS4; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 4, 18kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) [KO:K03937]
4725  
NDUFS5; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 5, 15kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) [KO:K03938]
4726  
NDUFS6; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 6, 13kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) [KO:K03939]
374291  
NDUFS7; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 7, 20kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) [KO:K03940] [EC:1.6.99.3 1.6.5.3]
4728  
NDUFS8; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) Fe-S protein 8, 23kDa (NADH-coenzyme Q reductase) [KO:K03941] [EC:1.6.99.3 1.6.5.3]
4717  
NDUFC1; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1, subcomplex unknown, 1, 6kDa [KO:K03967]
4718  
NDUFC2; NADH dehydrogenase (ubiquinone) 1, subcomplex unknown, 2, 14.5kDa [KO:K03968]
NDUFC2-KCTD14; NDUFC2-KCTD14 readthrough [KO:K03968]
6389  
SDHA; succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit A, flavoprotein (Fp) [KO:K00234] [EC:1.3.5.1]
6390  
SDHB; succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit B, iron sulfur (Ip) [KO:K00235] [EC:1.3.5.1]
6391  
SDHC; succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit C, integral membrane protein, 15kDa [KO:K00236]
6392  
SDHD; succinate dehydrogenase complex, subunit D, integral membrane protein [KO:K00237]
7386  
UQCRFS1; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, Rieske iron-sulfur polypeptide 1 [KO:K00411] [EC:1.10.2.2]
4519  
CYTB; cytochrome b [KO:K00412]
1537  
CYC1; cytochrome c-1 [KO:K00413]
7384  
UQCRC1; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein I [KO:K00414]
7385  
UQCRC2; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase core protein II [KO:K00415]
7388  
UQCRH; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein [KO:K00416]
440567  
UQCRHL; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase hinge protein-like [KO:K00416]
7381  
UQCRB; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase binding protein [KO:K00417]
27089  
UQCRQ; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit VII, 9.5kDa [KO:K00418]
29796  
UQCR10; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit X [KO:K00419]
10975  
UQCR11; ubiquinol-cytochrome c reductase, complex III subunit XI [KO:K00420]
4514  
COX3; cytochrome c oxidase III [KO:K02262]
4512  
COX1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [KO:K02256] [EC:1.9.3.1]
4513  
COX2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit II [KO:K02261]
84701  
COX4I2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 2 (lung) [KO:K02263]
1327  
COX4I1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit IV isoform 1 [KO:K02263]
9377  
COX5A; cytochrome c oxidase subunit Va [KO:K02264]
1329  
COX5B; cytochrome c oxidase subunit Vb [KO:K02265]
1337  
COX6A1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIa polypeptide 1 [KO:K02266]
1339  
COX6A2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIa polypeptide 2 [KO:K02266]
1340  
COX6B1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb polypeptide 1 (ubiquitous) [KO:K02267]
125965  
COX6B2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb polypeptide 2 (testis) [KO:K02267]
1345  
COX6C; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIc [KO:K02268]
1346  
COX7A1; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa polypeptide 1 (muscle) [KO:K02270]
1347  
COX7A2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa polypeptide 2 (liver) [KO:K02270]
9167  
COX7A2L; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIa polypeptide 2 like [KO:K02270]
1349  
COX7B; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIb [KO:K02271]
170712  
COX7B2; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIb2 [KO:K02271]
1350  
COX7C; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIc [KO:K02272]
341947  
COX8C; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIIC [KO:K02273]
1351  
COX8A; cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIIIA (ubiquitous) [KO:K02273]
498  
ATP5A1; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, alpha subunit 1, cardiac muscle [KO:K02132]
506  
ATP5B; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, beta polypeptide [KO:K02133] [EC:3.6.3.14]
509  
ATP5C1; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, gamma polypeptide 1 [KO:K02136]
513  
ATP5D; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, delta subunit [KO:K02134]
514  
ATP5E; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, epsilon subunit [KO:K02135]
4508  
ATP6; ATP synthase F0 subunit 6 [KO:K02126]
515  
ATP5F1; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit B1 [KO:K02127]
516  
ATP5G1; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C1 (subunit 9) [KO:K02128]
517  
ATP5G2; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C2 (subunit 9) [KO:K02128]
518  
ATP5G3; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit C3 (subunit 9) [KO:K02128]
10476  
ATP5H; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit d [KO:K02138]
539  
ATP5O; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial F1 complex, O subunit [KO:K02137]
522  
ATP5J; ATP synthase, H+ transporting, mitochondrial Fo complex, subunit F6 [KO:K02131]
4509  
ATP8; ATP synthase F0 subunit 8 [KO:K02125]
3028  
HSD17B10; hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 10 [KO:K08683] [EC:1.1.1.178 1.1.1.35]
4023  
LPL; lipoprotein lipase [KO:K01059] [EC:3.1.1.34]
348  
APOE; apolipoprotein E [KO:K04524]
4035  
LRP1; low density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 1 [KO:K04550]
355  
FAS; Fas cell surface death receptor [KO:K04390]
7132  
TNFRSF1A; tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, member 1A [KO:K03158]
8772  
FADD; Fas (TNFRSF6)-associated via death domain [KO:K02373]
841  
CASP8; caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [KO:K04398] [EC:3.4.22.61]
637  
BID; BH3 interacting domain death agonist [KO:K04726]
810  
CALML3; calmodulin-like 3 [KO:K02183]
805  
CALM2; calmodulin 2 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
808  
CALM3; calmodulin 3 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
801  
CALM1; calmodulin 1 (phosphorylase kinase, delta) [KO:K02183]
163688  
CALML6; calmodulin-like 6 [KO:K02183]
51806  
CALML5; calmodulin-like 5 [KO:K02183]
5530  
PPP3CA; protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, alpha isozyme [KO:K04348] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5532  
PPP3CB; protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, beta isozyme [KO:K04348] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5533  
PPP3CC; protein phosphatase 3, catalytic subunit, gamma isozyme [KO:K04348] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5534  
PPP3R1; protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, alpha [KO:K06268]
5535  
PPP3R2; protein phosphatase 3, regulatory subunit B, beta [KO:K06268]
572  
BAD; BCL2-associated agonist of cell death [KO:K02158]
54205  
CYCS; cytochrome c, somatic [KO:K08738]
317  
APAF1; apoptotic peptidase activating factor 1 [KO:K02084]
842  
CASP9; caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [KO:K04399] [EC:3.4.22.62]
836  
CASP3; caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [KO:K02187] [EC:3.4.22.56]
2776  
GNAQ; guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein), q polypeptide [KO:K04634]
23236  
PLCB1; phospholipase C, beta 1 (phosphoinositide-specific) [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5330  
PLCB2; phospholipase C, beta 2 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5331  
PLCB3; phospholipase C, beta 3 (phosphatidylinositol-specific) [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
5332  
PLCB4; phospholipase C, beta 4 [KO:K05858] [EC:3.1.4.11]
2902  
GRIN1; glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 1 [KO:K05208]
2903  
GRIN2A; glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2A [KO:K05209]
2904  
GRIN2B; glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2B [KO:K05210]
2905  
GRIN2C; glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2C [KO:K05211]
2906  
GRIN2D; glutamate receptor, ionotropic, N-methyl D-aspartate 2D [KO:K05212]
775  
CACNA1C; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit [KO:K04850]
776  
CACNA1D; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1D subunit [KO:K04851]
778  
CACNA1F; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1F subunit [KO:K04853]
779  
CACNA1S; calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1S subunit [KO:K04857]
5594  
MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  
MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
6263  
RYR3; ryanodine receptor 3 [KO:K04963]
3708  
ITPR1; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 1 [KO:K04958]
3709  
ITPR2; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 2 [KO:K04959]
3710  
ITPR3; inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, type 3 [KO:K04960]
487  
ATP2A1; ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, fast twitch 1 [KO:K05853] [EC:3.6.3.8]
489  
ATP2A3; ATPase, Ca++ transporting, ubiquitous [KO:K05853] [EC:3.6.3.8]
488  
ATP2A2; ATPase, Ca++ transporting, cardiac muscle, slow twitch 2 [KO:K05853] [EC:3.6.3.8]
22926  
ATF6; activating transcription factor 6 [KO:K09054]
2081  
ERN1; endoplasmic reticulum to nucleus signaling 1 [KO:K08852] [EC:3.1.26.- 2.7.11.1]
9451  
EIF2AK3; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2-alpha kinase 3 [KO:K08860] [EC:2.7.11.1]
CASP12; caspase 12 (gene/pseudogene) [KO:K04741] [EC:3.4.22.-]
4842  
NOS1; nitric oxide synthase 1 (neuronal) [KO:K13240] [EC:1.14.13.39]
823  
CAPN1; calpain 1, (mu/I) large subunit [KO:K01367] [EC:3.4.22.52]
824  
CAPN2; calpain 2, (m/II) large subunit [KO:K03853] [EC:3.4.22.53]
8851  
CDK5R1; cyclin-dependent kinase 5, regulatory subunit 1 (p35) [KO:K11716]
1020  
CDK5; cyclin-dependent kinase 5 [KO:K02090] [EC:2.7.11.22]
4137  
MAPT; microtubule-associated protein tau [KO:K04380]
2932  
GSK3B; glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta [KO:K03083] [EC:2.7.11.26]
840  
CASP7; caspase 7, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [KO:K04397] [EC:3.4.22.60]
6622  
SNCA; synuclein, alpha (non A4 component of amyloid precursor) [KO:K04528]
7124  
TNF; tumor necrosis factor [KO:K03156]
3553  
IL1B; interleukin 1, beta [KO:K04519]
Compound
C00027  
Hydrogen peroxide
C00070  
Copper
C00076  
Calcium cation
C00533  
Nitric oxide
C01245  
D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C14818  
Fe2+
C16845  
Peroxynitrite
Reference
  Authors
Dickson DW
  Title
Apoptotic mechanisms in Alzheimer neurofibrillary degeneration: cause or effect?
  Journal
J Clin Invest 114:23-7 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Takuma K, Yan SS, Stern DM, Yamada K
  Title
Mitochondrial dysfunction, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and apoptosis in Alzheimer's disease.
  Journal
J Pharmacol Sci 97:312-6 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Bezprozvanny I, Mattson MP
  Title
Neuronal calcium mishandling and the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease.
  Journal
Trends Neurosci 31:454-63 (2008)
Reference
PMID:9848086
  Authors
Holscher C
  Title
Possible causes of Alzheimer's disease: amyloid fragments, free radicals, and calcium homeostasis.
  Journal
Neurobiol Dis 5:129-41 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Bojarski L, Herms J, Kuznicki J
  Title
Calcium dysregulation in Alzheimer's disease.
  Journal
Neurochem Int 52:621-33 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Katayama T, Imaizumi K, Manabe T, Hitomi J, Kudo T, Tohyama M
  Title
Induction of neuronal death by ER stress in Alzheimer's disease.
  Journal
J Chem Neuroanat 28:67-78 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Small DH, Mok SS, Bornstein JC
  Title
Alzheimer's disease and Abeta toxicity: from top to bottom.
  Journal
Nat Rev Neurosci 2:595-8 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Mattson MP
  Title
Pathways towards and away from Alzheimer's disease.
  Journal
Nature 430:631-9 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Parihar MS, Hemnani T
  Title
Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis and therapeutic interventions.
  Journal
J Clin Neurosci 11:456-67 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Cowburn RF, Popescu BO, Ankarcrona M, Dehvari N, Cedazo-Minguez A
  Title
Presenilin-mediated signal transduction.
  Journal
Physiol Behav 92:93-7 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Shen Y, He P, Zhong Z, McAllister C, Lindholm K
  Title
Distinct destructive signal pathways of neuronal death in Alzheimer's disease.
  Journal
Trends Mol Med 12:574-9 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Reese LC, Zhang W, Dineley KT, Kayed R, Taglialatela G
  Title
Selective induction of calcineurin activity and signaling by oligomeric amyloid beta.
  Journal
Aging Cell 7:824-35 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Lee MS, Kwon YT, Li M, Peng J, Friedlander RM, Tsai LH
  Title
Neurotoxicity induces cleavage of p35 to p25 by calpain.
  Journal
Nature 405:360-4 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Hauptmann S, Keil U, Scherping I, Bonert A, Eckert A, Muller WE
  Title
Mitochondrial dysfunction in sporadic and genetic Alzheimer's disease.
  Journal
Exp Gerontol 41:668-73 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Avila J
  Title
Tau phosphorylation and aggregation in Alzheimer's disease pathology.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 580:2922-7 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Ivins KJ, Thornton PL, Rohn TT, Cotman CW
  Title
Neuronal apoptosis induced by beta-amyloid is mediated by caspase-8.
  Journal
Neurobiol Dis 6:440-9 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Gandy S
  Title
The role of cerebral amyloid beta accumulation in common forms of Alzheimer disease.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 115:1121-9 (2005)
KO pathway
 

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