KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa05034Help
Entry
hsa05034                    Pathway                                

Name
Alcoholism - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Alcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the rewarding effects of alcohol, dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been identified. Acute exposure to alcohol stimulates dopamine release into the NAc, which activates D1 receptors, stimulating PKA signaling and subsequent CREB-mediated gene expression,  whereas chronic alcohol exposure leads to an adaptive downregulation of this pathway, in particular of CREB function. The decreased CREB function in the NAc may promote the intake of drugs of abuse to achieve an increase in reward and thus may be involved in the regulation of positive affective states of addiction. PKA signaling also affects NMDA receptor activity and may  play an important role in neuroadaptation in response to chronic alcohol exposure.
Class
Human Diseases; Substance dependence
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Alcoholism
hsa05034

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H01611  
Alcohol dependence
Drug
D02780  
Acamprosate calcium (JAN/USAN)
D07058  
Acamprosate (INN)
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
7054  
K00501 tyrosine 3-monooxygenase [EC:1.14.16.2] | (RefSeq) TH; tyrosine hydroxylase [KO:K00501] [EC:1.14.16.2]
1644  
K01593 aromatic-L-amino-acid decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.28] | (RefSeq) DDC; dopa decarboxylase [KO:K01593] [EC:4.1.1.28]
6570  
K08155 MFS transporter; solute carrier family 18 member A1 [KO:K08155]
6571  
K08155 MFS transporter; solute carrier family 18 member A2 [KO:K08155]
4129  
K00274 monoamine oxidase [EC:1.4.3.4] | (RefSeq) MAOB; monoamine oxidase B [KO:K00274] [EC:1.4.3.4]
4128  
K00274 monoamine oxidase [EC:1.4.3.4] | (RefSeq) MAOA; monoamine oxidase A [KO:K00274] [EC:1.4.3.4]
6531  
K05036 solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter; solute carrier family 6 member 3 [KO:K05036]
2902  
K05208 glutamate receptor ionotropic; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 1 [KO:K05208]
2903  
K05209 glutamate receptor ionotropic; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2A [KO:K05209]
2904  
K05210 glutamate receptor ionotropic; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2B [KO:K05210]
2905  
K05211 glutamate receptor ionotropic; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2C [KO:K05211]
2906  
K05212 glutamate receptor ionotropic; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 2D [KO:K05212]
116443  
K05213 glutamate receptor ionotropic; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 3A [KO:K05213]
116444  
K05214 glutamate receptor ionotropic; glutamate ionotropic receptor NMDA type subunit 3B [KO:K05214]
3065  
K06067 histone deacetylase 1/2 [EC:3.5.1.98] | (RefSeq) HDAC1; histone deacetylase 1 [KO:K06067] [EC:3.5.1.98]
3066  
K06067 histone deacetylase 1/2 [EC:3.5.1.98] | (RefSeq) HDAC2; histone deacetylase 2 [KO:K06067] [EC:3.5.1.98]
8841  
K11404 histone deacetylase 3 [EC:3.5.1.98] | (RefSeq) HDAC3; histone deacetylase 3 [KO:K11404] [EC:3.5.1.98]
9759  
K11406 histone deacetylase 4/5 [EC:3.5.1.98] | (RefSeq) HDAC4; histone deacetylase 4 [KO:K11406] [EC:3.5.1.98]
10014  
K11406 histone deacetylase 4/5 [EC:3.5.1.98] | (RefSeq) HDAC5; histone deacetylase 5 [KO:K11406] [EC:3.5.1.98]
10013  
K11407 histone deacetylase 6 [EC:3.5.1.98] | (RefSeq) HDAC6; histone deacetylase 6 [KO:K11407] [EC:3.5.1.98]
51564  
K11408 histone deacetylase 7 [EC:3.5.1.98] | (RefSeq) HDAC7; histone deacetylase 7 [KO:K11408] [EC:3.5.1.98]
55869  
K11405 histone deacetylase 8 [EC:3.5.1.98] | (RefSeq) HDAC8; histone deacetylase 8 [KO:K11405] [EC:3.5.1.98]
9734  
K11409 histone deacetylase 9 [EC:3.5.1.98] | (RefSeq) HDAC9; histone deacetylase 9 [KO:K11409] [EC:3.5.1.98]
83933  
K18671 histone deacetylase 10 [EC:3.5.1.98] | (RefSeq) HDAC10; histone deacetylase 10 [KO:K18671] [EC:3.5.1.98]
79885  
K11418 histone deacetylase 11 [EC:3.5.1.98] | (RefSeq) HDAC11; histone deacetylase 11 [KO:K11418] [EC:3.5.1.98]
3014  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) H2AFX; H2A histone family member X [KO:K11251]
8338  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST2H2AC; histone cluster 2 H2A family member c [KO:K11251]
85235  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST1H2AH; histone cluster 1 H2A family member h [KO:K11251]
221613  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST1H2AA; histone cluster 1 H2A family member a [KO:K11251]
92815  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST3H2A; histone cluster 3 H2A [KO:K11251]
83740  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) H2AFB3; H2A histone family member B3 [KO:K11251]
3012  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST1H2AE; histone cluster 1 H2A family member e [KO:K11251]
8335  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST1H2AB; histone cluster 1 H2A family member b [KO:K11251]
55506  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) H2AFY2; H2A histone family member Y2 [KO:K11251]
9555  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) H2AFY; H2A histone family member Y [KO:K11251]
723790  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST2H2AA4; histone cluster 2 H2A family member a4 [KO:K11251]
55766  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) H2AFJ; H2A histone family member J [KO:K11251]
474382  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) H2AFB1; H2A histone family member B1 [KO:K11251]
8336  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST1H2AM; histone cluster 1 H2A family member m [KO:K11251]
8337  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST2H2AA3; histone cluster 2 H2A family member a3 [KO:K11251]
8969  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST1H2AG; histone cluster 1 H2A family member g [KO:K11251]
317772  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST2H2AB; histone cluster 2 H2A family member b [KO:K11251]
94239  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) H2AFV; H2A histone family member V [KO:K11251]
3013  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST1H2AD; histone cluster 1 H2A family member d [KO:K11251]
3015  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) H2AFZ; H2A histone family member Z [KO:K11251]
8330  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST1H2AK; histone cluster 1 H2A family member k [KO:K11251]
8334  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST1H2AC; histone cluster 1 H2A family member c [KO:K11251]
8329  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST1H2AI; histone cluster 1 H2A family member i [KO:K11251]
8331  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST1H2AJ; histone cluster 1 H2A family member j [KO:K11251]
8332  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) HIST1H2AL; histone cluster 1 H2A family member l [KO:K11251]
474381  
K11251 histone H2A | (RefSeq) H2AFB2; H2A histone family member B2 [KO:K11251]
8341  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BN; histone cluster 1 H2B family member n [KO:K11252]
8345  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BH; histone cluster 1 H2B family member h [KO:K11252]
8342  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BM; histone cluster 1 H2B family member m [KO:K11252]
158983  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) H2BFWT; H2B histone family member W, testis specific [KO:K11252]
255626  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BA; histone cluster 1 H2B family member a [KO:K11252]
440689  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST2H2BF; histone cluster 2 H2B family member f [KO:K11252]
8348  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BO; histone cluster 1 H2B family member o [KO:K11252]
3018  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BB; histone cluster 1 H2B family member b [KO:K11252]
8339  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BG; histone cluster 1 H2B family member g [KO:K11252]
8340  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BL; histone cluster 1 H2B family member l [KO:K11252]
8347  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BC; histone cluster 1 H2B family member c [KO:K11252]
3017  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BD; histone cluster 1 H2B family member d [KO:K11252]
8344  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BE; histone cluster 1 H2B family member e [KO:K11252]
8346  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BI; histone cluster 1 H2B family member i [KO:K11252]
8349  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST2H2BE; histone cluster 2 H2B family member e [KO:K11252]
8970  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BJ; histone cluster 1 H2B family member j [KO:K11252]
85236  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BK; histone cluster 1 H2B family member k [KO:K11252]
128312  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST3H2BB; histone cluster 3 H2B family member b [KO:K11252]
8343  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) HIST1H2BF; histone cluster 1 H2B family member f [KO:K11252]
286436  
K11252 histone H2B | (RefSeq) H2BFM; H2B histone family member M [KO:K11252]
440093  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) H3F3C; H3 histone family member 3C [KO:K11253]
3021  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) H3F3B; H3 histone family member 3B [KO:K11253]
8351  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST1H3D; histone cluster 1 H3 family member d [KO:K11253]
8352  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST1H3C; histone cluster 1 H3 family member c [KO:K11253]
8350  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST1H3A; histone cluster 1 H3 family member a [KO:K11253]
3020  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) H3F3A; H3 histone family member 3A [KO:K11253]
8290  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST3H3; histone cluster 3 H3 [KO:K11253]
126961  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST2H3C; histone cluster 2 H3 family member c [KO:K11253]
333932  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST2H3A; histone cluster 2 H3 family member a [KO:K11253]
653604  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST2H3D; histone cluster 2 H3 family member d [KO:K11253]
8353  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST1H3E; histone cluster 1 H3 family member e [KO:K11253]
8354  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST1H3I; histone cluster 1 H3 family member i [KO:K11253]
8355  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST1H3G; histone cluster 1 H3 family member g [KO:K11253]
8356  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST1H3J; histone cluster 1 H3 family member j [KO:K11253]
8357  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST1H3H; histone cluster 1 H3 family member h [KO:K11253]
8358  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST1H3B; histone cluster 1 H3 family member b [KO:K11253]
8968  
K11253 histone H3 | (RefSeq) HIST1H3F; histone cluster 1 H3 family member f [KO:K11253]
121504  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST4H4; histone cluster 4 H4 [KO:K11254]
554313  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST2H4B; histone cluster 2 H4 family member b [KO:K11254]
8294  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST1H4I; histone cluster 1 H4 family member i [KO:K11254]
8360  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST1H4D; histone cluster 1 H4 family member d [KO:K11254]
8361  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST1H4F; histone cluster 1 H4 family member f [KO:K11254]
8362  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST1H4K; histone cluster 1 H4 family member k [KO:K11254]
8363  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST1H4J; histone cluster 1 H4 family member j [KO:K11254]
8364  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST1H4C; histone cluster 1 H4 family member c [KO:K11254]
8365  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST1H4H; histone cluster 1 H4 family member h [KO:K11254]
8366  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST1H4B; histone cluster 1 H4 family member b [KO:K11254]
8367  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST1H4E; histone cluster 1 H4 family member e [KO:K11254]
8368  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST1H4L; histone cluster 1 H4 family member l [KO:K11254]
8370  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST2H4A; histone cluster 2 H4 family member a [KO:K11254]
8359  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST1H4A; histone cluster 1 H4 family member a [KO:K11254]
8369  
K11254 histone H4 | (RefSeq) HIST1H4G; histone cluster 1 H4 family member g [KO:K11254]
8520  
K11303 histone acetyltransferase 1 [EC:2.3.1.48] | (RefSeq) HAT1; histone acetyltransferase 1 [KO:K11303] [EC:2.3.1.48]
1812  
K04144 dopamine receptor D1 | (RefSeq) DRD1; dopamine receptor D1 [KO:K04144]
2778  
K04632 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(s) subunit alpha | (RefSeq) GNAS; GNAS complex locus [KO:K04632]
1813  
K04145 dopamine receptor D2 | (RefSeq) DRD2; dopamine receptor D2 [KO:K04145]
2770  
K04630 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha | (RefSeq) GNAI1; G protein subunit alpha i1 [KO:K04630]
2773  
K04630 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha | (RefSeq) GNAI3; G protein subunit alpha i3 [KO:K04630]
2771  
K04630 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(i) subunit alpha | (RefSeq) GNAI2; G protein subunit alpha i2 [KO:K04630]
2775  
K04534 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(o) subunit alpha | (RefSeq) GNAO1; G protein subunit alpha o1 [KO:K04534]
2782  
K04536 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-1 | (RefSeq) GNB1; G protein subunit beta 1 [KO:K04536]
2783  
K04537 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-2 | (RefSeq) GNB2; G protein subunit beta 2 [KO:K04537]
2784  
K07825 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(T) subunit beta-3 | (RefSeq) GNB3; G protein subunit beta 3 [KO:K07825]
59345  
K04538 guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-4 | (RefSeq) GNB4; G protein subunit beta 4 [KO:K04538]
10681  
K04539 guanine nucleotide-binding protein subunit beta-5 | (RefSeq) GNB5; G protein subunit beta 5 [KO:K04539]
54331  
K07826 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-2 | (RefSeq) GNG2; G protein subunit gamma 2 [KO:K07826]
2785  
K04540 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-3 | (RefSeq) GNG3; G protein subunit gamma 3 [KO:K04540]
2786  
K04541 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-4 | (RefSeq) GNG4; G protein subunit gamma 4 [KO:K04541]
2787  
K04542 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-5 | (RefSeq) GNG5; G protein subunit gamma 5 [KO:K04542]
2788  
K04543 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-7 | (RefSeq) GNG7; G protein subunit gamma 7 [KO:K04543]
94235  
K04544 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-8 | (RefSeq) GNG8; G protein subunit gamma 8 [KO:K04544]
2790  
K04545 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-10 | (RefSeq) GNG10; G protein subunit gamma 10 [KO:K04545]
2791  
K04546 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-11 | (RefSeq) GNG11; G protein subunit gamma 11 [KO:K04546]
55970  
K04347 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12 | (RefSeq) GNG12; G protein subunit gamma 12 [KO:K04347]
51764  
K04547 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-13 | (RefSeq) GNG13; G protein subunit gamma 13 [KO:K04547]
2792  
K04548 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(T) subunit gamma-T1 | (RefSeq) GNGT1; G protein subunit gamma transducin 1 [KO:K04548]
2793  
K04549 guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-T2 | (RefSeq) GNGT2; G protein subunit gamma transducin 2 [KO:K04549]
135  
K04266 adenosine receptor A2a | (RefSeq) ADORA2A; adenosine A2a receptor [KO:K04266]
136  
K04267 adenosine receptor A2b | (RefSeq) ADORA2B; adenosine A2b receptor [KO:K04267]
111  
K08045 adenylate cyclase 5 [EC:4.6.1.1] | (RefSeq) ADCY5; adenylate cyclase 5 [KO:K08045] [EC:4.6.1.1]
1385  
K05870 cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 1 | (RefSeq) CREB1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 1 [KO:K05870]
1386  
K04450 cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-2 | (RefSeq) ATF2; activating transcription factor 2 [KO:K04450]
468  
K04374 cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-4 | (RefSeq) ATF4; activating transcription factor 4 [KO:K04374]
10488  
K09048 cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3 | (RefSeq) CREB3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 [KO:K09048]
90993  
K09048 cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3 | (RefSeq) CREB3L1; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 1 [KO:K09048]
64764  
K09048 cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3 | (RefSeq) CREB3L2; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 2 [KO:K09048]
84699  
K09048 cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3 | (RefSeq) CREB3L3; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 3 [KO:K09048]
148327  
K09048 cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 3 | (RefSeq) CREB3L4; cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 4 [KO:K09048]
9586  
K09047 cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein 5 | (RefSeq) CREB5; cAMP responsive element binding protein 5 [KO:K09047]
1388  
K09049 cyclic AMP-dependent transcription factor ATF-6 beta | (RefSeq) ATF6B; activating transcription factor 6 beta [KO:K09049]
1392  
K05256 corticotropin-releasing hormone | (RefSeq) CRH; corticotropin releasing hormone [KO:K05256]
4852  
K05232 neuropeptide Y | (RefSeq) NPY; neuropeptide Y [KO:K05232]
627  
K04355 brain-derived neurotrophic factor | (RefSeq) BDNF; brain derived neurotrophic factor [KO:K04355]
4915  
K04360 neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 [EC:2.7.10.1] | (RefSeq) NTRK2; neurotrophic receptor tyrosine kinase 2 [KO:K04360] [EC:2.7.10.1]
6464  
K06279 SHC-transforming protein 1 | (RefSeq) SHC1; SHC adaptor protein 1 [KO:K06279]
25759  
K17447 SHC-transforming protein 2 | (RefSeq) SHC2; SHC adaptor protein 2 [KO:K17447]
53358  
K17448 SHC-transforming protein 3 | (RefSeq) SHC3; SHC adaptor protein 3 [KO:K17448]
399694  
K17449 SHC-transforming protein 4 | (RefSeq) SHC4; SHC adaptor protein 4 [KO:K17449]
2885  
K04364 growth factor receptor-binding protein 2 | (RefSeq) GRB2; growth factor receptor bound protein 2 [KO:K04364]
6654  
K03099 son of sevenless | (RefSeq) SOS1; SOS Ras/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor 1 [KO:K03099]
6655  
K03099 son of sevenless | (RefSeq) SOS2; SOS Ras/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 [KO:K03099]
3265  
K02833 GTPase HRas | (RefSeq) HRAS; HRas proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K02833]
3845  
K07827 GTPase KRas | (RefSeq) KRAS; KRAS proto-oncogene, GTPase [KO:K07827]
4893  
K07828 GTPase NRas | (RefSeq) NRAS; neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog [KO:K07828]
369  
K08845 A-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1] | (RefSeq) ARAF; A-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K08845] [EC:2.7.11.1]
673  
K04365 B-Raf proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1] | (RefSeq) BRAF; B-Raf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04365] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5894  
K04366 RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase [EC:2.7.11.1] | (RefSeq) RAF1; Raf-1 proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
5604  
K04368 mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [EC:2.7.12.2] | (RefSeq) MAP2K1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
5594  
K04371 mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:2.7.11.24] | (RefSeq) MAPK1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5595  
K04371 mitogen-activated protein kinase 1/3 [EC:2.7.11.24] | (RefSeq) MAPK3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
5173  
K15840 proenkephalin B (prodynorphin) | (RefSeq) PDYN; prodynorphin [KO:K15840]
810  
K02183 calmodulin | (RefSeq) CALML3; calmodulin like 3 [KO:K02183]
805  
K02183 calmodulin | (RefSeq) CALM2; calmodulin 2 [KO:K02183]
808  
K02183 calmodulin | (RefSeq) CALM3; calmodulin 3 [KO:K02183]
801  
K02183 calmodulin | (RefSeq) CALM1; calmodulin 1 [KO:K02183]
163688  
K02183 calmodulin | (RefSeq) CALML6; calmodulin like 6 [KO:K02183]
51806  
K02183 calmodulin | (RefSeq) CALML5; calmodulin like 5 [KO:K02183]
91860  
K02183 calmodulin | (RefSeq) CALML4; calmodulin like 4 [KO:K02183]
84254  
K07359 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase [EC:2.7.11.17] | (RefSeq) CAMKK1; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K07359] [EC:2.7.11.17]
10645  
K07359 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase [EC:2.7.11.17] | (RefSeq) CAMKK2; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase kinase 2 [KO:K07359] [EC:2.7.11.17]
814  
K05869 calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IV [EC:2.7.11.17] | (RefSeq) CAMK4; calcium/calmodulin dependent protein kinase IV [KO:K05869] [EC:2.7.11.17]
2354  
K09029 protein FosB | (RefSeq) FOSB; FosB proto-oncogene, AP-1 transcription factor subunit [KO:K09029]
84152  
K15494 protein phosphatase 1 regulatory subunit 1B | (RefSeq) PPP1R1B; protein phosphatase 1 regulatory inhibitor subunit 1B [KO:K15494]
5499  
K06269 serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1 catalytic subunit [EC:3.1.3.16] | (RefSeq) PPP1CA; protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K06269] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5500  
K06269 serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1 catalytic subunit [EC:3.1.3.16] | (RefSeq) PPP1CB; protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit beta [KO:K06269] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5501  
K06269 serine/threonine-protein phosphatase PP1 catalytic subunit [EC:3.1.3.16] | (RefSeq) PPP1CC; protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit gamma [KO:K06269] [EC:3.1.3.16]
5569  
K15985 cAMP-dependent protein kinase inhibitor alpha | (RefSeq) PKIA; protein kinase (cAMP-dependent, catalytic) inhibitor alpha [KO:K15985]
2030  
K15014 solute carrier family 29 (equilibrative nucleoside transporter); solute carrier family 29 member 1 (Augustine blood group) [KO:K15014]
5566  
K04345 protein kinase A [EC:2.7.11.11] | (RefSeq) PRKACA; protein kinase cAMP-activated catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K04345] [EC:2.7.11.11]
Compound
C00025  
L-Glutamate
C00027  
Hydrogen peroxide
C00076  
Calcium cation
C00082  
L-Tyrosine
C00212  
Adenosine
C00355  
3,4-Dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine
C00469  
Ethanol
C00575  
3',5'-Cyclic AMP
C01161  
3,4-Dihydroxyphenylacetate
C03758  
Dopamine
Reference
  Authors
Spanagel R
  Title
Alcoholism: a systems approach from molecular physiology to addictive behavior.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 89:649-705 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Newton PM, Messing RO
  Title
Intracellular signaling pathways that regulate behavioral responses to ethanol.
  Journal
Pharmacol Ther 109:227-37 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Mailliard WS, Diamond I
  Title
Recent advances in the neurobiology of alcoholism: the role of adenosine.
  Journal
Pharmacol Ther 101:39-46 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Ron D, Jurd R
  Title
The "ups and downs" of signaling cascades in addiction.
  Journal
Sci STKE 2005:re14 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Diana M, Brodie M, Muntoni A, Puddu MC, Pillolla G, Steffensen S, Spiga S, Little HJ
  Title
Enduring effects of chronic ethanol in the CNS: basis for alcoholism.
  Journal
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 27:354-61 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Moonat S, Starkman BG, Sakharkar A, Pandey SC
  Title
Neuroscience of alcoholism: molecular and cellular mechanisms.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 67:73-88 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Pandey SC
  Title
The gene transcription factor cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein: role in positive and negative affective states of alcohol addiction.
  Journal
Pharmacol Ther 104:47-58 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Zhang TA, Maldve RE, Morrisett RA
  Title
Coincident signaling in mesolimbic structures underlying alcohol reinforcement.
  Journal
Biochem Pharmacol 72:919-27 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Maldve RE, Zhang TA, Ferrani-Kile K, Schreiber SS, Lippmann MJ, Snyder GL, Fienberg AA, Leslie SW, Gonzales RA, Morrisett RA
  Title
DARPP-32 and regulation of the ethanol sensitivity of NMDA receptors in the nucleus accumbens.
  Journal
Nat Neurosci 5:641-8 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Lovinger DM
  Title
NMDA receptors lose their inhibitions.
  Journal
Nat Neurosci 5:614-6 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Hyman SE, Malenka RC, Nestler EJ
  Title
Neural mechanisms of addiction: the role of reward-related learning and memory.
  Journal
Annu Rev Neurosci 29:565-98 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Berke JD, Hyman SE
  Title
Addiction, dopamine, and the molecular mechanisms of memory.
  Journal
Neuron 25:515-32 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Clapp P, Bhave SV, Hoffman PL
  Title
How Adaptation of the Brain to Alcohol Leads to Dependence: A Pharmacological Perspective.
  Journal
Alcohol Res Health 31:310-339 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Jeanes ZM, Buske TR, Morrisett RA
  Title
In vivo chronic intermittent ethanol exposure reverses the polarity of synaptic plasticity in the nucleus accumbens shell.
  Journal
J Pharmacol Exp Ther 336:155-64 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Lee AM, Messing RO
  Title
Protein kinases and addiction.
  Journal
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1141:22-57 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Repunte-Canonigo V, Lutjens R, van der Stap LD, Sanna PP
  Title
Increased expression of protein kinase A inhibitor alpha (PKI-alpha) and decreased PKA-regulated genes in chronic intermittent alcohol exposure.
  Journal
Brain Res 1138:48-56 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Logrip ML, Janak PH, Ron D
  Title
Dynorphin is a downstream effector of striatal BDNF regulation of ethanol intake.
  Journal
FASEB J 22:2393-404 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Shukla SD, Velazquez J, French SW, Lu SC, Ticku MK, Zakhari S
  Title
Emerging role of epigenetics in the actions of alcohol.
  Journal
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 32:1525-34 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Pascual M, Boix J, Felipo V, Guerri C
  Title
Repeated alcohol administration during adolescence causes changes in the mesolimbic dopaminergic and glutamatergic systems and promotes alcohol intake in  the adult rat.
  Journal
J Neurochem 108:920-31 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Li J, Cheng Y, Bian W, Liu X, Zhang C, Ye JH
  Title
Region-specific induction of FosB/DeltaFosB by voluntary alcohol intake: effects  of naltrexone.
  Journal
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 34:1742-50 (2010)
KO pathway
 

DBGET integrated database retrieval system