KEGG   PATHWAY: hsa05310Help
Entry
hsa05310                    Pathway                                

Name
Asthma - Homo sapiens (human)
Description
Asthma is a complex syndrome with many clinical phenotypes in both adults and children. Its major characteristics include a variable degree of airflow obstruction, bronchial hyperresponsiveness, and airway inflammation. Inhaled allergens encounter antigen presenting cells (APC) that line the airway. Upon recognition of the antigen and activation by APC, naive T cells differentiate into TH2 cells. Activated TH2 stimulate the formation of IgE by B cells. IgE molecules bind to IgE receptors located on mast cells. The crosslinking of mast-cell-bound IgE by allergens leads to the release of biologically active mediators (histamine, leukotrienes) by means of degranulation and, so, to the immediate symptoms of allergy. Mast cells also release chemotactic factors that contribute to the recruitment of inflammatory cells, particularly eosinophils, whose proliferation and differentiation from bone marrow progenitors is promoted by IL-5. The activation of eosinophils leads to release of toxic granules and oxygen free radicals that lead to tissue damage and promote the development of chronic inflammation.
Class
Human Diseases; Immune diseases
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Asthma
hsa05310

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00079  
Asthma
H01094  
Eosinophil peroxidase deficiency
Drug
D04358  
Golimumab (genetical recombination) (JAN)
D08857  
Anrukinzumab (USAN)
D09633  
Lebrikizumab (genetical recombination) (JAN)
D09897  
Enokizumab (USAN/INN)
Organism
Homo sapiens (human) [GN:hsa]
Gene
3108  
HLA-DMA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM alpha [KO:K06752]
3109  
HLA-DMB; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM beta [KO:K06752]
3111  
HLA-DOA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DO alpha [KO:K06752]
3112  
HLA-DOB; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DO beta [KO:K06752]
3113  
HLA-DPA1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha 1 [KO:K06752]
3115  
HLA-DPB1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP beta 1 [KO:K06752]
3117  
HLA-DQA1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 [KO:K06752]
3118  
HLA-DQA2; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 2 [KO:K06752]
3119  
HLA-DQB1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1 [KO:K06752]
3122  
HLA-DRA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha [KO:K06752]
3123  
HLA-DRB1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 1 [KO:K06752]
3125  
HLA-DRB3; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 3 [KO:K06752]
3126  
HLA-DRB4; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 4 [KO:K06752]
3127  
HLA-DRB5; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR beta 5 [KO:K06752]
3565  
IL4; interleukin 4 [KO:K05430]
959  
CD40LG; CD40 ligand [KO:K03161]
958  
CD40; CD40 molecule [KO:K03160]
putative V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing-like protein IGHV4OR15-8; K06856 immunoglobulin heavy chain [KO:K06856]
2205  
FCER1A; Fc fragment of IgE receptor Ia [KO:K08089]
2206  
MS4A2; membrane spanning 4-domains A2 [KO:K08090]
2207  
FCER1G; Fc fragment of IgE receptor Ig [KO:K07983]
3578  
IL9; interleukin 9 [KO:K05432]
3586  
IL10; interleukin 10 [KO:K05443]
3596  
IL13; interleukin 13 [KO:K05435]
3567  
IL5; interleukin 5 [KO:K05428]
6356  
CCL11; C-C motif chemokine ligand 11 [KO:K16597]
7124  
TNF; tumor necrosis factor [KO:K03156]
3562  
IL3; interleukin 3 [KO:K04736]
5553  
PRG2; proteoglycan 2, bone marrow (natural killer cell activator, eosinophil granule major basic protein) [KO:K10786]
6037  
RNASE3; ribonuclease A family member 3 [KO:K10787] [EC:3.1.27.-]
8288  
EPX; eosinophil peroxidase [KO:K10788] [EC:1.11.1.7]
Compound
C00388  
Histamine
C00696  
Prostaglandin D2
C02166  
Leukotriene C4
C04598  
2-Acetyl-1-alkyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine
C05951  
Leukotriene D4
Reference
  Authors
Busse WW, Lemanske RF Jr.
  Title
Asthma.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 344:350-62 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Renauld JC.
  Title
New insights into the role of cytokines in asthma.
  Journal
J Clin Pathol 54:577-89 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Romagnani S.
  Title
The role of lymphocytes in allergic disease.
  Journal
J Allergy Clin Immunol 105:399-408 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Averbeck M, Gebhardt C, Emmrich F, Treudler R, Simon JC.
  Title
Immunologic principles of allergic disease.
  Journal
J Dtsch Dermatol Ges 5:1015-28 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Conroy DM, Williams TJ.
  Title
Eotaxin and the attraction of eosinophils to the asthmatic lung.
  Journal
Respir Res 2:150-6 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Effros RM, Nagaraj H.
  Title
Asthma: new developments concerning immune mechanisms, diagnosis and treatment.
  Journal
Curr Opin Pulm Med 13:37-43 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Barnes PJ.
  Title
Immunology of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 8:183-92 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Holgate ST, Polosa R.
  Title
Treatment strategies for allergy and asthma.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 8:218-30 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Valenta R.
  Title
The future of antigen-specific immunotherapy of allergy.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 2:446-53 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Trivedi SG, Lloyd CM.
  Title
Eosinophils in the pathogenesis of allergic airways disease.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 64:1269-89 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Heinecke JW.
  Title
Eosinophil-dependent bromination in the pathogenesis of asthma.
  Journal
J Clin Invest 105:1331-2 (2000)
KO pathway
 

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