KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00010Help
Entry
ko00010                     Pathway                                

Name
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
Description
Glycolysis is the process of converting glucose into pyruvate and generating small amounts of ATP (energy) and NADH (reducing power). It is a central pathway that produces important precursor metabolites: six-carbon compounds of glucose-6P and fructose-6P and three-carbon compounds of glycerone-P, glyceraldehyde-3P, glycerate-3P, phosphoenolpyruvate, and pyruvate [MD:M00001]. Acetyl-CoA, another important precursor metabolite, is produced by oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate [MD:M00307]. When the enzyme genes of this pathway are examined in completely sequenced genomes, the reaction steps of three-carbon compounds from glycerone-P to pyruvate form a conserved core module [MD:M00002], which is found in almost all organisms and which sometimes contains operon structures in bacterial genomes. Gluconeogenesis is a synthesis pathway of glucose from noncarbohydrate precursors. It is essentially a reversal of glycolysis with minor variations of alternative paths [MD:M00003].
Class
Metabolism; Carbohydrate metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Glycolysis / Gluconeogenesis
ko00010

All organismsOrtholog table
Module
M00001  
Glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof pathway), glucose => pyruvate [PATH:ko00010]
M00002  
Glycolysis, core module involving three-carbon compounds [PATH:ko00010]
M00003  
Gluconeogenesis, oxaloacetate => fructose-6P [PATH:ko00010]
M00114  
Ascorbate biosynthesis, plants, glucose-6P => ascorbate [PATH:ko00010]
M00265  
PTS system, glucose-specific II component [PATH:ko00010]
M00266  
PTS system, maltose and glucose-specific II component [PATH:ko00010]
M00268  
PTS system, arbutin-like II component [PATH:ko00010]
M00272  
PTS system, arbutin-, cellobiose-, and salicin-specific II component [PATH:ko00010]
M00307  
Pyruvate oxidation, pyruvate => acetyl-CoA [PATH:ko00010]
Disease
H00069  
Glycogen storage diseases (GSD)
H00071  
Hereditary fructose intolerance
H00072  
Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency
H00114  
Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase deficiency
H00664  
Anemia due to disorders of glycolytic enzymes
H01071  
Acute alcohol sensitivity
H01096  
Pyruvate kinase (PK) deficiency
H01267  
Familial hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia (HHF)
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Orthology
K00844  
hexokinase [EC:2.7.1.1]
K12407  
glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.2]
K00845  
glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.2]
K01810  
glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.9]
K06859  
glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, archaeal [EC:5.3.1.9]
K13810  
transaldolase / glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.9 2.2.1.2]
K15916  
glucose/mannose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.8 5.3.1.9]
K00850  
6-phosphofructokinase 1 [EC:2.7.1.11]
K16370  
6-phosphofructokinase 2 [EC:2.7.1.11]
K03841  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase I [EC:3.1.3.11]
K02446  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase II [EC:3.1.3.11]
K11532  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase II / sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase [EC:3.1.3.37 3.1.3.11]
K01086  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase I / sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase [EC:3.1.3.37 3.1.3.11]
K04041  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase III [EC:3.1.3.11]
K01623  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class I [EC:4.1.2.13]
K11645  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class I [EC:4.1.2.13]
K01624  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class II [EC:4.1.2.13]
K01622  
fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.11 4.1.2.13]
K16305  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase / 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate synthase [EC:2.2.1.11 4.1.2.13]
K16306  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase / 2-amino-3,7-dideoxy-D-threo-hept-6-ulosonate synthase [EC:2.2.1.10 4.1.2.13]
K01803  
triosephosphate isomerase (TIM) [EC:5.3.1.1]
K00134  
glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.12]
K10705  
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, spermatogenic [EC:1.2.1.12]
K00150  
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NAD(P)) [EC:1.2.1.59]
K00927  
phosphoglycerate kinase [EC:2.7.2.3]
K01834  
2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-dependent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.11]
K15633  
2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12]
K15634  
probable phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12]
K15635  
2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase [EC:5.4.2.12]
K01689  
enolase [EC:4.2.1.11]
K00873  
pyruvate kinase [EC:2.7.1.40]
K12406  
pyruvate kinase isozymes R/L [EC:2.7.1.40]
K00163  
pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component [EC:1.2.4.1]
K00161  
pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component alpha subunit [EC:1.2.4.1]
K00162  
pyruvate dehydrogenase E1 component beta subunit [EC:1.2.4.1]
K00627  
pyruvate dehydrogenase E2 component (dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase) [EC:2.3.1.12]
K00382  
dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase [EC:1.8.1.4]
K00169  
pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, alpha subunit [EC:1.2.7.1]
K00170  
pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, beta subunit [EC:1.2.7.1]
K00171  
pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, delta subunit [EC:1.2.7.1]
K00172  
pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, gamma subunit [EC:1.2.7.1]
K00016  
L-lactate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.27]
K01568  
pyruvate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.1]
K13951  
alcohol dehydrogenase 1/7 [EC:1.1.1.1]
K13980  
alcohol dehydrogenase 4 [EC:1.1.1.1]
K00121  
S-(hydroxymethyl)glutathione dehydrogenase / alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1 1.1.1.284]
K13952  
alcohol dehydrogenase 6 [EC:1.1.1.1]
K04072  
acetaldehyde dehydrogenase / alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1 1.2.1.10]
K13953  
alcohol dehydrogenase, propanol-preferring [EC:1.1.1.1]
K13954  
alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1]
K00001  
alcohol dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.1]
K00002  
alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.1.1.2]
K14028  
methanol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c) subunit 1 [EC:1.1.2.7]
K14029  
methanol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c) subunit 2 [EC:1.1.2.7]
K00114  
alcohol dehydrogenase (cytochrome c) [EC:1.1.2.8]
K04022  
alcohol dehydrogenase
K00128  
aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD+) [EC:1.2.1.3]
K14085  
aldehyde dehydrogenase family 7 member A1 [EC:1.2.1.3 1.2.1.8 1.2.1.31]
K00149  
aldehyde dehydrogenase family 9 member A1 [EC:1.2.1.3 1.2.1.47]
K00129  
aldehyde dehydrogenase (NAD(P)+) [EC:1.2.1.5]
K00138  
aldehyde dehydrogenase [EC:1.2.1.-]
K01895  
acetyl-CoA synthetase [EC:6.2.1.1]
K01905  
acetyl-CoA synthetase (ADP-forming) [EC:6.2.1.13]
K01785  
aldose 1-epimerase [EC:5.1.3.3]
K01085  
glucose-1-phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.10]
K05344  
glucose-1-phosphate phosphodismutase [EC:2.7.1.41]
K01835  
phosphoglucomutase [EC:5.4.2.2]
K15778  
phosphomannomutase / phosphoglucomutase [EC:5.4.2.2 5.4.2.8]
K15779  
phosphoglucomutase / phosphopentomutase [EC:5.4.2.7 5.4.2.2]
K01084  
glucose-6-phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.9]
K00886  
polyphosphate glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.63]
K08074  
ADP-dependent glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.147]
K00918  
ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase/glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.147 2.7.1.146]
K01792  
glucose-6-phosphate 1-epimerase [EC:5.1.3.15]
K01837  
bisphosphoglycerate mutase [EC:3.1.3.13 5.4.2.11 5.4.2.4]
K11389  
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (ferredoxin) [EC:1.2.7.6]
K00131  
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.2.1.9]
K01596  
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (GTP) [EC:4.1.1.32]
K01610  
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (ATP) [EC:4.1.1.49]
K01222  
6-phospho-beta-glucosidase [EC:3.2.1.86]
K01223  
6-phospho-beta-glucosidase [EC:3.2.1.86]
K02777  
PTS system, glucose-specific IIA component [EC:2.7.1.69]
K02778  
PTS system, glucose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.69]
K02779  
PTS system, glucose-specific IIC component
K02790  
PTS system, maltose and glucose-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.69]
K02791  
PTS system, maltose and glucose-specific IIC component
K02749  
PTS system, arbutin-like IIB component [EC:2.7.1.69]
K02750  
PTS system, arbutin-like IIC component
K02752  
PTS system, arbutin-, cellobiose-, and salicin-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.69]
K02753  
PTS system, arbutin-, cellobiose-, and salicin-specific IIC component
Compound
C00022  
Pyruvate
C00024  
Acetyl-CoA
C00031  
D-Glucose
C00033  
Acetate
C00036  
Oxaloacetate
C00068  
Thiamin diphosphate
C00074  
Phosphoenolpyruvate
C00084  
Acetaldehyde
C00103  
D-Glucose 1-phosphate
C00111  
Glycerone phosphate
C00118  
D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
C00186  
(S)-Lactate
C00197  
3-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00221  
beta-D-Glucose
C00236  
3-Phospho-D-glyceroyl phosphate
C00267  
alpha-D-Glucose
C00469  
Ethanol
C00631  
2-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00668  
alpha-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C01159  
2,3-Bisphospho-D-glycerate
C01172  
beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C01451  
Salicin
C05125  
2-(alpha-Hydroxyethyl)thiamine diphosphate
C05345  
beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
C05378  
beta-D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
C06186  
Arbutin
C06187  
Arbutin 6-phosphate
C06188  
Salicin 6-phosphate
C15972  
Enzyme N6-(lipoyl)lysine
C15973  
Enzyme N6-(dihydrolipoyl)lysine
C16255  
[Dihydrolipoyllysine-residue acetyltransferase] S-acetyldihydrolipoyllysine
Reference
(map 1)
  Authors
Nishizuka Y (ed).
  Title
[Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1980)
Reference
(map 1)
  Authors
Nishizuka Y, Seyama Y, Ikai A, Ishimura Y, Kawaguchi A (eds).
  Title
[Cellular Functions and Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Michal G.
  Title
Biochemical Pathways
  Journal
Wiley (1999)

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