KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00030Help
Entry
ko00030                     Pathway                                

Name
Pentose phosphate pathway
Description
The pentose phosphate pathway is a process of glucose turnover that produces NADPH as reducing equivalents and pentoses as essential parts of nucleotides. There are two different phases in the pathway. One is irreversible oxidative phase in which glucose-6P is converted to ribulose-5P by oxidative decarboxylation, and NADPH is generated [MD:M00006]. The other is reversible non-oxidative phase in which phosphorylated sugars are interconverted to generate xylulose-5P, ribulose-5P, and ribose-5P [MD:M00007]. Phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) formed from ribose-5P [MD:M00005] is an activated compound used in the biosynthesis of histidine and purine/pyrimidine nucleotides. This pathway map also shows the Entner-Doudoroff pathway where 6-P-gluconate is dehydrated and then cleaved into pyruvate and glyceraldehyde-3P [MD:M00008].
Class
Metabolism; Carbohydrate metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Pentose phosphate pathway
ko00030

All organismsOrtholog table
Module
M00004  
Pentose phosphate pathway (Pentose phosphate cycle) [PATH:ko00030]
M00005  
PRPP biosynthesis, ribose 5P => PRPP [PATH:ko00030]
M00006  
Pentose phosphate pathway, oxidative phase, glucose 6P => ribulose 5P [PATH:ko00030]
M00007  
Pentose phosphate pathway, non-oxidative phase, fructose 6P => ribose 5P [PATH:ko00030]
M00008  
Entner-Doudoroff pathway, glucose-6P => glyceraldehyde-3P + pyruvate [PATH:ko00030]
M00061  
D-Glucuronate degradation, D-glucuronate => pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde 3P [PATH:ko00030]
M00308  
Semi-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway, gluconate => glycerate-3P [PATH:ko00030]
M00309  
Non-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway, gluconate/galactonate => glycerate [PATH:ko00030]
M00580  
Pentose phosphate pathway, archaea, fructose 6P => ribose 5P [PATH:ko00030]
M00631  
D-Galacturonate degradation (bacteria), D-galacturonate => pyruvate + D-glyceraldehyde 3P [PATH:ko00030]
M00633  
Semi-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway, gluconate/galactonate => glycerate-3P [PATH:ko00030]
Disease
H00196  
Phosphoribosylpyrophosphate synthetase I superactivity
H00668  
Anemia due to disorders of glutathione metabolism
H00946  
Arts syndrome
H01111  
Cortisone reductase deficiency (CRD)
H01135  
Ribose 5-phosphate isomerase (RPI) deficiency
H01189  
Transaldolase (TALDO) deficiency
H01375  
Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Orthology
K01810  
glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.9]
K06859  
glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, archaeal [EC:5.3.1.9]
K13810  
transaldolase / glucose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.9 2.2.1.2]
K15916  
glucose/mannose-6-phosphate isomerase [EC:5.3.1.8 5.3.1.9]
K00036  
glucose-6-phosphate 1-dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.49]
K01057  
6-phosphogluconolactonase [EC:3.1.1.31]
K07404  
6-phosphogluconolactonase [EC:3.1.1.31]
K13937  
hexose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [EC:3.1.1.31 1.1.1.47]
K00033  
6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.44]
K01783  
ribulose-phosphate 3-epimerase [EC:5.1.3.1]
K00615  
transketolase [EC:2.2.1.1]
K00616  
transaldolase [EC:2.2.1.2]
K01807  
ribose 5-phosphate isomerase A [EC:5.3.1.6]
K01808  
ribose 5-phosphate isomerase B [EC:5.3.1.6]
K13812  
bifunctional enzyme Fae/Hps [EC:4.1.2.43 4.2.1.147]
K08093  
3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase [EC:4.1.2.43]
K08094  
6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase [EC:5.3.1.27]
K13831  
3-hexulose-6-phosphate synthase / 6-phospho-3-hexuloisomerase [EC:5.3.1.27 4.1.2.43]
K01621  
phosphoketolase [EC:4.1.2.9]
K01619  
deoxyribose-phosphate aldolase [EC:4.1.2.4]
K00852  
ribokinase [EC:2.7.1.15]
K01839  
phosphopentomutase [EC:5.4.2.7]
K01835  
phosphoglucomutase [EC:5.4.2.2]
K15778  
phosphomannomutase / phosphoglucomutase [EC:5.4.2.2 5.4.2.8]
K15779  
phosphoglucomutase / phosphopentomutase [EC:5.4.2.7 5.4.2.2]
K05774  
ribose 1,5-bisphosphokinase [EC:2.7.4.23]
K00948  
ribose-phosphate pyrophosphokinase [EC:2.7.6.1]
K01690  
phosphogluconate dehydratase [EC:4.2.1.12]
K01625  
2-dehydro-3-deoxyphosphogluconate aldolase / (4S)-4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate aldolase [EC:4.1.3.42 4.1.2.14]
K17463  
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-phosphogluconate aldolase [EC:4.1.2.14]
K11395  
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-phosphogluconate/2-dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phosphogalactonate aldolase [EC:4.1.2.55]
K00131  
glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.2.1.9]
K00034  
glucose 1-dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.47]
K18124  
glucose/galactose 1-dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.1.1.360]
K18125  
aldose 1-dehydrogenase [NAD(P)+] [EC:1.1.1.359]
K00115  
glucose dehydrogenase (acceptor) [EC:1.1.5.9]
K00117  
quinoprotein glucose dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.5.2]
K01053  
gluconolactonase [EC:3.1.1.17]
K06151  
gluconate 2-dehydrogenase alpha chain [EC:1.1.99.3]
K06152  
gluconate 2-dehydrogenase gamma chain [EC:1.1.99.3]
K00090  
gluconate 2-dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.215]
K11441  
dehydrogluconokinase [EC:2.7.1.13]
K00032  
phosphogluconate 2-dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.43]
K00851  
gluconokinase [EC:2.7.1.12]
K05308  
gluconate/galactonate dehydratase [EC:4.2.1.140]
K00874  
2-dehydro-3-deoxygluconokinase [EC:2.7.1.45]
K18126  
2-dehydro-3-deoxygluconokinase / 2-dehydro-3-deoxygalactonokinase [EC:2.7.1.178]
K18127  
2-dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate aldolase [EC:4.1.2.51]
K03738  
aldehyde:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [EC:1.2.7.5]
K18020  
glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase large subunit [EC:1.2.99.8]
K18021  
glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase medium subunit [EC:1.2.99.8]
K18022  
glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase small subunit [EC:1.2.99.8]
K18128  
D-glyceraldehyde dehydrogenase (NADP+) [EC:1.2.1.89]
K11529  
glycerate 2-kinase [EC:2.7.1.165]
K17464  
PTS system, D-glucosaminate-specific IIA component [EC:2.7.1.69]
K17465  
PTS system, D-glucosaminate-specific IIB component [EC:2.7.1.69]
K17466  
PTS system, D-glucosaminate-specific IIC component
K17467  
PTS system, D-glucosaminate-specific IID component
K17468  
D-glucosaminate-6-phosphate ammonia-lyase [EC:4.3.1.29]
K01623  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class I [EC:4.1.2.13]
K11645  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class I [EC:4.1.2.13]
K01624  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, class II [EC:4.1.2.13]
K01622  
fructose 1,6-bisphosphate aldolase/phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.11 4.1.2.13]
K16305  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase / 6-deoxy-5-ketofructose 1-phosphate synthase [EC:2.2.1.11 4.1.2.13]
K16306  
fructose-bisphosphate aldolase / 2-amino-3,7-dideoxy-D-threo-hept-6-ulosonate synthase [EC:2.2.1.10 4.1.2.13]
K03841  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase I [EC:3.1.3.11]
K02446  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase II [EC:3.1.3.11]
K11532  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase II / sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase [EC:3.1.3.37 3.1.3.11]
K01086  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase I / sedoheptulose-1,7-bisphosphatase [EC:3.1.3.37 3.1.3.11]
K04041  
fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase III [EC:3.1.3.11]
K00850  
6-phosphofructokinase 1 [EC:2.7.1.11]
K16370  
6-phosphofructokinase 2 [EC:2.7.1.11]
K00918  
ADP-dependent phosphofructokinase/glucokinase [EC:2.7.1.147 2.7.1.146]
Compound
C00022  
Pyruvate
C00031  
D-Glucose
C00117  
D-Ribose 5-phosphate
C00118  
D-Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate
C00119  
5-Phospho-alpha-D-ribose 1-diphosphate
C00121  
D-Ribose
C00197  
3-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00198  
D-Glucono-1,5-lactone
C00199  
D-Ribulose 5-phosphate
C00204  
2-Dehydro-3-deoxy-D-gluconate
C00221  
beta-D-Glucose
C00231  
D-Xylulose 5-phosphate
C00257  
D-Gluconic acid
C00258  
D-Glycerate
C00279  
D-Erythrose 4-phosphate
C00345  
6-Phospho-D-gluconate
C00577  
D-Glyceraldehyde
C00620  
alpha-D-Ribose 1-phosphate
C00631  
2-Phospho-D-glycerate
C00668  
alpha-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C00672  
2-Deoxy-D-ribose 1-phosphate
C00673  
2-Deoxy-D-ribose 5-phosphate
C01151  
D-Ribose 1,5-bisphosphate
C01172  
beta-D-Glucose 6-phosphate
C01218  
6-Phospho-2-dehydro-D-gluconate
C01236  
D-Glucono-1,5-lactone 6-phosphate
C01801  
Deoxyribose
C03752  
2-Amino-2-deoxy-D-gluconate
C04442  
2-Dehydro-3-deoxy-6-phospho-D-gluconate
C05345  
beta-D-Fructose 6-phosphate
C05378  
beta-D-Fructose 1,6-bisphosphate
C05382  
Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate
C06019  
D-arabino-Hex-3-ulose 6-phosphate
C06473  
2-Keto-D-gluconic acid
C20589  
6-Phospho-D-glucosaminate
Reference
(map 3)
  Authors
Nishizuka Y (ed).
  Title
[Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1980)
Reference
(map 4)
  Authors
Nishizuka Y, Seyama Y, Ikai A, Ishimura Y, Kawaguchi A (eds).
  Title
[Cellular Functions and Metabolic Maps] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Tokyo Kagaku Dojin (1997)
Reference
  Authors
Michal G.
  Title
Biochemical Pathways
  Journal
Wiley (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Hove-Jensen B, Rosenkrantz TJ, Haldimann A, Wanner BL.
  Title
Escherichia coli phnN, encoding ribose 1,5-bisphosphokinase activity (phosphoribosyl diphosphate forming): dual role in phosphonate degradation and NAD biosynthesis pathways.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 185:2793-801 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Orita I, Sato T, Yurimoto H, Kato N, Atomi H, Imanaka T, Sakai Y
  Title
The ribulose monophosphate pathway substitutes for the missing pentose phosphate  pathway in the archaeon Thermococcus kodakaraensis.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 188:4698-704 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Kato N, Yurimoto H, Thauer RK
  Title
The physiological role of the ribulose monophosphate pathway in bacteria and archaea.
  Journal
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 70:10-21 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Kouril T, Wieloch P, Reimann J, Wagner M, Zaparty M, Albers SV, Schomburg D, Ruoff P, Siebers B
  Title
Unraveling the function of the two Entner-Doudoroff branches in the thermoacidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus P2.
  Journal
FEBS J 280:1126-38 (2013)
Reference
  Authors
Reher M, Schonheit P
  Title
Glyceraldehyde dehydrogenases from the thermoacidophilic euryarchaeota Picrophilus torridus and Thermoplasma acidophilum, key enzymes of the non-phosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway, constitute a novel enzyme family within the aldehyde dehydrogenase superfamily.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 580:1198-204 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Reher M, Fuhrer T, Bott M, Schonheit P
  Title
The nonphosphorylative Entner-Doudoroff pathway in the thermoacidophilic euryarchaeon Picrophilus torridus involves a novel 2-keto-3-deoxygluconate- specific aldolase.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 192:964-74 (2010)

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