KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00860Help
Entry
ko00860                     Pathway                                

Name
Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
Class
Metabolism; Metabolism of cofactors and vitamins
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko00860  Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
ko00860

Ortholog table
Module
M00121  Heme biosynthesis, glutamate => protoheme/siroheme [PATH:ko00860]
M00122  Cobalamin biosynthesis, cobinamide => cobalamin [PATH:ko00860]
M00836  Coenzyme F430 biosynthesis, sirohydrochlorin => coenzyme F430 [PATH:ko00860]
Disease
H00201  Erythropoietic porphyria (EP)
H00202  Hepatic porphyria
H00208  Hyperbilirubinemia
H00833  Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)
H01027  Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M)
H01368  Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency
H01763  Porphyria
H01936  Hyperbiliverdinemia (HBLVD)
H02054  Crigler-Najjar syndrome
H02055  Gilbert syndrome
Drug
D04413  Halofuginone hydrobromide (USAN)
D08034  Halofuginone (INN)
Other DBs
BSID: 407
GO: 0006778
Orthology
K00643  5-aminolevulinate synthase [EC:2.3.1.37]
K01885  glutamyl-tRNA synthetase [EC:6.1.1.17]
K14163  bifunctional glutamyl/prolyl-tRNA synthetase [EC:6.1.1.15 6.1.1.17]
K02492  glutamyl-tRNA reductase [EC:1.2.1.70]
K01845  glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase [EC:5.4.3.8]
K01698  porphobilinogen synthase [EC:4.2.1.24]
K01749  hydroxymethylbilane synthase [EC:2.5.1.61]
K01719  uroporphyrinogen-III synthase [EC:4.2.1.75]
K13542  uroporphyrinogen III methyltransferase / synthase [EC:4.2.1.75 2.1.1.107]
K13543  uroporphyrinogen III methyltransferase / synthase [EC:4.2.1.75 2.1.1.107]
K02496  uroporphyrin-III C-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.107]
K02302  uroporphyrin-III C-methyltransferase / precorrin-2 dehydrogenase / sirohydrochlorin ferrochelatase [EC:4.99.1.4 1.3.1.76 2.1.1.107]
K02303  uroporphyrin-III C-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.107]
K00589  uroporphyrin-III C-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.107]
K02304  precorrin-2 dehydrogenase / sirohydrochlorin ferrochelatase [EC:4.99.1.4 1.3.1.76]
K03794  sirohydrochlorin ferrochelatase [EC:4.99.1.4]
K01599  uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.37]
K00228  coproporphyrinogen III oxidase [EC:1.3.3.3]
K02495  oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase [EC:1.3.98.3]
K00230  menaquinone-dependent protoporphyrinogen oxidase [EC:1.3.5.3]
K00231  protoporphyrinogen/coproporphyrinogen III oxidase [EC:1.3.3.15 1.3.3.4]
K01772  protoporphyrin/coproporphyrin ferrochelatase [EC:4.99.1.9 4.99.1.1]
K00435  Fe-coproporphyrin III decarboxylase [EC:1.11.1.-]
K02257  heme o synthase [EC:2.5.1.141]
K02259  cytochrome c oxidase assembly protein subunit 15
K02190  sirohydrochlorin cobaltochelatase [EC:4.99.1.3]
K03795  sirohydrochlorin cobaltochelatase [EC:4.99.1.3]
K22011  sirohydrochlorin cobalto/nickelchelatase [EC:4.99.1.11 4.99.1.3]
K03394  precorrin-2/cobalt-factor-2 C20-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.151 2.1.1.130]
K13540  precorrin-2 C20-methyltransferase / precorrin-3B C17-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.131 2.1.1.130]
K02229  precorrin-3B synthase [EC:1.14.13.83]
K05934  precorrin-3B C17-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.131]
K02189  cobalt-precorrin 5A hydrolase [EC:3.7.1.12]
K13541  cobalt-precorrin 5A hydrolase / precorrin-3B C17-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.131 3.7.1.12]
K21479  cobalt-factor III methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.272]
K05936  precorrin-4/cobalt-precorrin-4 C11-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.271 2.1.1.133]
K02228  precorrin-6A synthase [EC:2.1.1.152]
K05895  precorrin-6A/cobalt-precorrin-6A reductase [EC:1.3.1.106 1.3.1.54]
K02188  cobalt-precorrin-5B (C1)-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.195]
K00595  precorrin-6Y C5,15-methyltransferase (decarboxylating) [EC:2.1.1.132]
K02191  cobalt-precorrin-6B (C15)-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.196]
K03399  cobalt-precorrin-7 (C5)-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.289]
K06042  precorrin-8X/cobalt-precorrin-8 methylmutase [EC:5.4.99.60 5.4.99.61]
K02224  cobyrinic acid a,c-diamide synthase [EC:6.3.5.11 6.3.5.9]
K02230  cobaltochelatase CobN [EC:6.6.1.2]
K09882  cobaltochelatase CobS [EC:6.6.1.2]
K09883  cobaltochelatase CobT [EC:6.6.1.2]
K13786  cob(II)yrinic acid a,c-diamide reductase [EC:1.16.8.1]
K00798  cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase [EC:2.5.1.17]
K19221  cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase [EC:2.5.1.17]
K02232  adenosylcobyric acid synthase [EC:6.3.5.10]
K02227  adenosylcobinamide-phosphate synthase [EC:6.3.1.10]
K02225  cobalamin biosynthetic protein CobC
K08260  adenosylcobinamide hydrolase [EC:3.5.1.90]
K02231  adenosylcobinamide kinase / adenosylcobinamide-phosphate guanylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.62 2.7.1.156]
K19712  adenosylcobinamide-phosphate guanylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.62]
K02233  adenosylcobinamide-GDP ribazoletransferase [EC:2.7.8.26]
K00768  nicotinate-nucleotide--dimethylbenzimidazole phosphoribosyltransferase [EC:2.4.2.21]
K02226  alpha-ribazole phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.73]
K22316  ribonuclease H / adenosylcobalamin/alpha-ribazole phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.73 3.1.26.4]
K16651  L-threonine kinase [EC:2.7.1.177]
K04720  threonine-phosphate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.81]
K05368  aquacobalamin reductase / NAD(P)H-flavin reductase [EC:1.5.1.41 1.16.1.3]
K21682  pyruvate dehydrogenase (NADP+) / aquacobalamin reductase (NADPH) [EC:1.16.1.5 1.2.1.51]
K04032  ethanolamine utilization cobalamin adenosyltransferase [EC:2.5.1.17]
K22012  Ni-sirohydrochlorin a,c-diamide synthase [EC:6.3.5.12]
K21610  Ni-sirohydrochlorin a,c-diamide reductive cyclase subunit CfbC [EC:6.3.3.7]
K21611  Ni-sirohydrochlorin a,c-diamide reductive cyclase subunit CfbD [EC:6.3.3.7]
K21612  coenzyme F430 synthetase [EC:6.4.1.9]
K03403  magnesium chelatase subunit H [EC:6.6.1.1]
K03404  magnesium chelatase subunit D [EC:6.6.1.1]
K03405  magnesium chelatase subunit I [EC:6.6.1.1]
K03428  magnesium-protoporphyrin O-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.11]
K04034  anaerobic magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase [EC:1.21.98.3]
K04035  magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (oxidative) cyclase [EC:1.14.13.81]
K19073  divinyl chlorophyllide a 8-vinyl-reductase [EC:1.3.1.75]
K21231  3,8-divinyl protochlorophyllide a 8-vinyl-reductase (ferredoxin) [EC:1.3.7.13]
K04036  divinyl protochlorophyllide a 8-vinyl-reductase [EC:1.-.-.-]
K00218  protochlorophyllide reductase [EC:1.3.1.33]
K04037  light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase subunit L [EC:1.3.7.7]
K04038  light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase subunit N [EC:1.3.7.7]
K04039  light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase subunit B [EC:1.3.7.7]
K04040  chlorophyll/bacteriochlorophyll a synthase [EC:2.5.1.133 2.5.1.62]
K08099  chlorophyllase [EC:3.1.1.14]
K13600  chlorophyllide a oxygenase [EC:1.14.13.122]
K13606  chlorophyll(ide) b reductase [EC:1.1.1.294]
K18010  7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase [EC:1.17.7.2]
K22013  magnesium dechelatase [EC:4.99.1.10]
K13544  pheophorbidase [EC:3.1.1.82]
K13071  pheophorbide a oxygenase [EC:1.14.15.17]
K13545  red chlorophyll catabolite reductase [EC:1.3.7.12]
K11333  3,8-divinyl chlorophyllide a/chlorophyllide a reductase subunit X [EC:1.3.7.15 1.3.7.14]
K11334  3,8-divinyl chlorophyllide a/chlorophyllide a reductase subunit Y [EC:1.3.7.15 1.3.7.14]
K11335  3,8-divinyl chlorophyllide a/chlorophyllide a reductase subunit Z [EC:1.3.7.15 1.3.7.14]
K11336  3-vinyl bacteriochlorophyllide hydratase [EC:4.2.1.165]
K11337  bacteriochlorophyllide a dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.396]
K10960  geranylgeranyl diphosphate/geranylgeranyl-bacteriochlorophyllide a reductase [EC:1.3.1.111 1.3.1.83]
K21058  chlorophyllide a hydrolase [EC:3.1.1.100]
K13602  bacteriochlorophyllide d C-12(1)-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.331]
K13601  bacteriochlorophyllide d C-8(2)-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.332]
K13603  3-vinyl bacteriochlorophyllide hydratase [EC:4.2.1.169]
K13604  bacteriochlorophyllide d C-20 methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.333]
K13605  bacteriochlorophyll c synthase [EC:2.5.1.-]
K21312  bacteriochlorophyllide c C-7(1)-hydroxylase [EC:1.17.98.2]
K07215  heme oxygenase (biliverdin-IX-beta and delta-forming) [EC:1.14.99.58]
K07145  heme oxygenase (staphylobilin-producing) [EC:1.14.99.48]
K00510  heme oxygenase 1 [EC:1.14.14.18]
K21418  heme oxygenase 2 [EC:1.14.14.18]
K21480  heme oxygenase (biliverdin-producing, ferredoxin) [EC:1.14.15.20]
K00214  biliverdin reductase [EC:1.3.1.24]
K05901  biliverdin reductase / flavin reductase [EC:1.5.1.30 1.3.1.24]
K08100  bilirubin oxidase [EC:1.3.3.5]
K00699  glucuronosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.17]
K01195  beta-glucuronidase [EC:3.2.1.31]
K05369  15,16-dihydrobiliverdin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [EC:1.3.7.2]
K05370  phycoerythrobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [EC:1.3.7.3]
K08101  phytochromobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [EC:1.3.7.4]
K05371  phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [EC:1.3.7.5]
K21796  phycoerythrobilin synthase [EC:1.3.7.6]
K01764  cytochrome c heme-lyase [EC:4.4.1.17]
K13624  ceruloplasmin [EC:1.16.3.1]
K14735  hephaestin [EC:1.16.3.1]
K19054  frataxin [EC:1.16.3.1]
K03594  bacterioferritin [EC:1.16.3.1]
K22336  bacterioferritin B [EC:1.16.3.1]
K22552  multicopper oxidase [EC:1.16.3.1]
Compound
C00025  L-Glutamate
C00032  Heme
C00037  Glycine
C00188  L-Threonine
C00194  Cobamide coenzyme
C00430  5-Aminolevulinate
C00486  Bilirubin
C00500  Biliverdin
C00524  Cytochrome c
C00541  Cob(II)alamin
C00748  Siroheme
C00853  Cob(I)alamin
C00931  Porphobilinogen
C00992  Aquacob(III)alamin
C01024  Hydroxymethylbilane
C01051  Uroporphyrinogen III
C01079  Protoporphyrinogen IX
C01708  Hemoglobin
C02139  Chlorophyllide
C02191  Protoporphyrin
C02463  Precorrin 2
C02469  Uroporphyrin III
C02800  4,5-Dioxopentanoate
C02823  Cyanocobalamin
C02880  Protochlorophyllide
C02987  L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)
C03029  Transferrin[Fe(II)]2
C03114  Dimethylbenzimidazole
C03179  Transferrin[Fe(III)]2
C03194  (R)-1-Aminopropan-2-ol
C03263  Coproporphyrinogen III
C03516  Magnesium protoporphyrin
C03741  (S)-4-Amino-5-oxopentanoate
C04122  D-1-Aminopropan-2-ol O-phosphate
C04536  Magnesium protoporphyrin monomethyl ester
C04778  N1-(5-Phospho-alpha-D-ribosyl)-5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole
C05306  Chlorophyll a
C05307  Chlorophyll b
C05766  Uroporphyrinogen I
C05767  Uroporphyrin I
C05768  Coproporphyrinogen I
C05769  Coproporphyrin I
C05770  Coproporphyrin III
C05772  Precorrin 3A
C05773  Cobyrinate
C05774  Cobinamide
C05775  alpha-Ribazole
C05777  Coenzyme F430
C05778  Sirohydrochlorin
C05779  Apoferritin
C05780  Apotransferrin
C05781  Oxyhemoglobin
C05782  Myoglobin
C05783  Cytochrome a
C05784  Catalase
C05785  Peroxidase
C05786  (3Z)-Phycocyanobilin
C05787  Bilirubin beta-diglucuronide
C05789  L-Urobilinogen
C05790  I-Urobilinogen
C05791  D-Urobilinogen
C05793  L-Urobilin
C05794  Urobilin
C05795  D-Urobilin
C05797  Pheophytin a
C05798  Bacteriopheophytin
C05912  (3Z)-Phycoerythrobilin
C05913  (3Z)-Phytochromobilin
C06319  Precorrin 6Y
C06320  Precorrin 6X
C06399  Hydrogenobyrinate
C06406  Precorrin 3B
C06407  Precorrin 4
C06408  Precorrin 8X
C06416  Precorrin 5
C06503  Hydrogenobyrinate a,c diamide
C06504  Cob(II)yrinate a,c diamide
C06505  Cob(I)yrinate a,c diamide
C06506  Adenosyl cobyrinate a,c diamide
C06507  Adenosyl cobyrinate hexaamide
C06508  Adenosyl cobinamide
C06509  Adenosyl cobinamide phosphate
C06510  Adenosine-GDP-cobinamide
C11242  Bacteriochlorophyll a
C11243  Bacteriochlorophyll b
C11538  Cobalt-sirohydrochlorin
C11539  Cobalt-precorrin 3
C11540  Cobalt-precorrin 4
C11542  Cobalt-precorrin 6
C11543  Cobalt-dihydro-precorrin 6
C11545  Cobalt-precorrin 8
C11630  15,16-Dihydrobiliverdin
C11829  13(1)-Hydroxy-magnesium-protoporphyrin IX 13-monomethyl ester
C11830  13(1)-Oxo-magnesium-protoporphyrin IX 13-monomethyl ester
C11831  Divinylprotochlorophyllide
C11832  Divinyl chlorophyllide a
C11850  Divinylchlorophyll a
C11851  Zn-Bacteriochlorophyll a
C12147  L-Threonine O-3-phosphate
C14818  Fe2+
C14819  Fe3+
C15670  Heme A
C15672  Heme O
C16242  Cobalt-precorrin 5A
C16243  Cobalt-precorrin 5B
C16244  Cobalt-precorrin 7
C16540  7(1)-Hydroxychlorophyllide a
C16541  Chlorophyllide b
C17401  Cobalt-factor III
C18021  Pheophorbide a
C18022  Red chlorophyll catabolite
C18064  Pyropheophorbide a
C18098  Primary fluorescent chlorophyll catabolite
C18151  7(1)-Hydroxychlorophyll a
C18152  3-Vinylbacteriochlorophyllide a
C18153  3-Hydroxyethylbacteriochlorophyllide a
C18154  3-Hydroxyethylchlorophyllide a
C18155  Bacteriochlorophyllide a
C18156  Bacteriochlorophyllide b
C18157  8-Ethyl-12-methyl-3-vinylbacteriochlorophyllide d
C18160  Bacteriochlorophyllide d
C18161  Bacteriochlorophyllide c
C18162  Bacteriochlorophyll d
C18163  Bacteriochlorophyll c
C20666  5-Oxo-delta-bilirubin
C21217  Geranylgeranyl bacteriochlorophyllide a
C21284  Fe-coproporphyrin III
C21427  8,12-Diethyl-3-vinylbacteriochlorophyllide d
C21428  12-Ethyl-8-propyl-3-vinylbacteriochlorophyllide d
C21429  12-Ethyl-8-isobutyl-3-vinylbacteriochlorophyllide d
C21431  8-Ethyl-12-methylbacteriochlorophyllide d
C21432  8,12-Diethylbacteriochlorophyllide d
C21433  12-Ethyl-8-propylbacteriochlorophyllide d
C21434  12-Ethyl-8-isobutylbacteriochlorophyllide d
C21435  Geranylgeranyl bacteriochlorophyllide b
C21510  Nickel-sirohydrochlorin
C21511  Nickel-sirohydrochlorin a,c-diamide
C21512  15,17(3)-Seco-F430-17(3)-acid
C21582  Bacteriochlorophyllide e
C21723  Biliverdin-IX-delta
C21724  Biliverdin-IX-beta
Reference
PMID:9461500
  Authors
Woodcock SC, Raux E, Levillayer F, Thermes C, Rambach A, Warren MJ.
  Title
Effect of mutations in the transmethylase and dehydrogenase/chelatase domains of sirohaem synthase (CysG) on sirohaem and cobalamin biosynthesis.
  Journal
Biochem J 330:121-9 (1998)
DOI:10.1042/bj3300121
Reference
  Authors
Johansson P, Hederstedt L
  Title
Organization of genes for tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in gram--positive bacteria.
  Journal
Microbiology 145 ( Pt 3):529-38 (1999)
DOI:10.1099/13500872-145-3-529
Reference
  Authors
Maggio-Hall LA, Escalante-Semerena JC.
  Title
In vitro synthesis of the nucleotide loop of cobalamin by Salmonella typhimurium enzymes.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:11798-803 (1999)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.96.21.11798
Reference
  Authors
Roper JM, Raux E, Brindley AA, Schubert HL, Gharbia SE, Shah HN, Warren MJ.
  Title
The enigma of cobalamin (Vitamin B12) biosynthesis in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Identification and characterization of a functional corrin pathway.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 275:40316-23 (2000)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M007146200
Reference
  Authors
Scott AI, Roessner CA.
  Title
Biosynthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B(12)).
  Journal
Biochem Soc Trans 30:613-20 (2002)
DOI:10.1042/bst0300613
Reference
  Authors
Warren MJ, Raux E, Schubert HL, Escalante-Semerena JC.
  Title
The biosynthesis of adenosylcobalamin (vitamin B12).
  Journal
Nat Prod Rep 19:390-412 (2002)
DOI:10.1039/b108967f
Reference
  Authors
Roessner CA, Huang KX, Warren MJ, Raux E, Scott AI.
  Title
Isolation and characterization of 14 additional genes specifying the anaerobic biosynthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B12) in Propionibacterium freudenreichii (P. shermanii).
  Journal
Microbiology 148:1845-53 (2002)
DOI:10.1099/00221287-148-6-1845
Reference
  Authors
Frankenberg N, Mukougawa K, Kohchi T, Lagarias JC.
  Title
Functional genomic analysis of the HY2 family of ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases from oxygenic photosynthetic organisms.
  Journal
Plant Cell 13:965-78 (2001)
DOI:10.1105/tpc.13.4.965
Reference
  Authors
Chew AG, Bryant DA
  Title
Chlorophyll biosynthesis in bacteria: the origins of structural and functional diversity.
  Journal
Annu Rev Microbiol 61:113-29 (2007)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.micro.61.080706.093242
Reference
  Authors
Frigaard NU, Chew AG, Li H, Maresca JA, Bryant DA
  Title
Chlorobium tepidum: insights into the structure, physiology, and metabolism of a green sulfur bacterium derived from the complete genome sequence.
  Journal
Photosynth Res 78:93-117 (2003)
DOI:10.1023/B:PRES.0000004310.96189.b4
Reference
  Authors
Deery E, Schroeder S, Lawrence AD, Taylor SL, Seyedarabi A, Waterman J, Wilson KS, Brown D, Geeves MA, Howard MJ, Pickersgill RW, Warren MJ
  Title
An enzyme-trap approach allows isolation of intermediates in cobalamin biosynthesis.
  Journal
Nat Chem Biol 8:933-40 (2012)
DOI:10.1038/nchembio.1086
Reference
  Authors
Moore SJ, Lawrence AD, Biedendieck R, Deery E, Frank S, Howard MJ, Rigby SE, Warren MJ
  Title
Elucidation of the anaerobic pathway for the corrin component of cobalamin (vitamin B12).
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:14906-11 (2013)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.1308098110

DBGET integrated database retrieval system