KEGG   PATHWAY: ko00860Help
Entry
ko00860                     Pathway                                

Name
Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
Class
Metabolism; Metabolism of cofactors and vitamins
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Porphyrin and chlorophyll metabolism
ko00860

All organismsOrtholog table
Module
M00121  
Heme biosynthesis, glutamate => protoheme/siroheme [PATH:ko00860]
M00122  
Cobalamin biosynthesis, cobinamide => cobalamin [PATH:ko00860]
Disease
H00201  
Erythropoietic porphyria (EP)
H00202  
Hepatic porphyria
H00208  
Hyperbilirubinemia
H00833  
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)
H01027  
Anophthalmia and microphthalmia (A/M)
H01202  
Cataract
H01368  
Cytochrome c oxidase (COX) deficiency
Drug
D04413  
Halofuginone hydrobromide (USAN)
D08034  
Halofuginone (INN)
Other DBs
BSID: 
GO: 
Orthology
K00643  
5-aminolevulinate synthase [EC:2.3.1.37]
K01885  
glutamyl-tRNA synthetase [EC:6.1.1.17]
K14163  
bifunctional glutamyl/prolyl-tRNA synthetase [EC:6.1.1.15 6.1.1.17]
K02492  
glutamyl-tRNA reductase [EC:1.2.1.70]
K01845  
glutamate-1-semialdehyde 2,1-aminomutase [EC:5.4.3.8]
K01698  
porphobilinogen synthase [EC:4.2.1.24]
K01749  
hydroxymethylbilane synthase [EC:2.5.1.61]
K01719  
uroporphyrinogen-III synthase [EC:4.2.1.75]
K13542  
uroporphyrinogen III methyltransferase / synthase [EC:4.2.1.75 2.1.1.107]
K13543  
uroporphyrinogen III methyltransferase / synthase [EC:4.2.1.75 2.1.1.107]
K02496  
uroporphyrin-III C-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.107]
K02302  
uroporphyrin-III C-methyltransferase / precorrin-2 dehydrogenase / sirohydrochlorin ferrochelatase [EC:4.99.1.4 1.3.1.76 2.1.1.107]
K02303  
uroporphyrin-III C-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.107]
K00589  
uroporphyrin-III C-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.107]
K02304  
precorrin-2 dehydrogenase / sirohydrochlorin ferrochelatase [EC:4.99.1.4 1.3.1.76]
K03794  
sirohydrochlorin ferrochelatase [EC:4.99.1.4]
K01599  
uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.37]
K00228  
coproporphyrinogen III oxidase [EC:1.3.3.3]
K02495  
oxygen-independent coproporphyrinogen III oxidase [EC:1.3.99.22]
K00230  
menaquinone-dependent protoporphyrinogen oxidase [EC:1.3.5.3]
K00231  
oxygen-dependent protoporphyrinogen oxidase [EC:1.3.3.4]
K01772  
ferrochelatase [EC:4.99.1.1]
K02257  
protoheme IX farnesyltransferase [EC:2.5.1.-]
K02301  
protoheme IX farnesyltransferase [EC:2.5.1.-]
K02259  
cytochrome c oxidase assembly protein subunit 15
K02190  
sirohydrochlorin cobaltochelatase [EC:4.99.1.3]
K03795  
sirohydrochlorin cobaltochelatase [EC:4.99.1.3]
K03394  
precorrin-2/cobalt-factor-2 C20-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.151 2.1.1.130]
K13540  
precorrin-2 C20-methyltransferase / precorrin-3B C17-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.131 2.1.1.130]
K02229  
precorrin-3B synthase [EC:1.14.13.83]
K05934  
precorrin-3B C17-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.131]
K02189  
cobalt-precorrin 5A hydrolase [EC:3.7.1.12]
K13541  
cobalt-precorrin 5A hydrolase / precorrin-3B C17-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.131 3.7.1.12]
K05936  
precorrin-4/cobalt-precorrin-4 C11-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.271 2.1.1.133]
K02228  
precorrin-6A synthase [EC:2.1.1.152]
K05895  
precorrin-6A/cobalt-precorrin-6A reductase [EC:1.3.1.106 1.3.1.54]
K02188  
cobalt-precorrin-5B (C1)-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.195]
K00595  
precorrin-6Y C5,15-methyltransferase (decarboxylating) [EC:2.1.1.132]
K02191  
cobalt-precorrin-6B (C15)-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.196]
K03399  
cobalt-precorrin-7 (C5)-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.289]
K06042  
precorrin-8X/cobalt-precorrin-8 methylmutase [EC:5.4.99.60 5.4.99.61]
K02224  
cobyrinic acid a,c-diamide synthase [EC:6.3.5.11 6.3.5.9]
K02230  
cobaltochelatase CobN [EC:6.6.1.2]
K09882  
cobaltochelatase CobS [EC:6.6.1.2]
K09883  
cobaltochelatase CobT [EC:6.6.1.2]
K13786  
cob(II)yrinic acid a,c-diamide reductase [EC:1.16.8.1]
K00798  
cob(I)alamin adenosyltransferase [EC:2.5.1.17]
K02232  
adenosylcobyric acid synthase [EC:6.3.5.10]
K02227  
adenosylcobinamide-phosphate synthase [EC:6.3.1.10]
K02225  
cobalamin biosynthetic protein CobC
K08260  
adenosylcobinamide hydrolase [EC:3.5.1.90]
K02231  
adenosylcobinamide kinase / adenosylcobinamide-phosphate guanylyltransferase [EC:2.7.7.62 2.7.1.156]
K02233  
adenosylcobinamide-GDP ribazoletransferase [EC:2.7.8.26]
K00768  
nicotinate-nucleotide--dimethylbenzimidazole phosphoribosyltransferase [EC:2.4.2.21]
K02226  
alpha-ribazole phosphatase [EC:3.1.3.73]
K16651  
L-threonine kinase [EC:2.7.1.177]
K04720  
threonine-phosphate decarboxylase [EC:4.1.1.81]
K05368  
aquacobalamin reductase / NAD(P)H-flavin reductase [EC:1.5.1.41 1.16.1.3]
K04032  
ethanolamine utilization cobalamin adenosyltransferase [EC:2.5.1.17]
K03403  
magnesium chelatase subunit H [EC:6.6.1.1]
K03404  
magnesium chelatase subunit D [EC:6.6.1.1]
K03405  
magnesium chelatase subunit I [EC:6.6.1.1]
K03428  
magnesium-protoporphyrin O-methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.11]
K04034  
anaerobic magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase [EC:4.-.-.-]
K04035  
magnesium-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester (oxidative) cyclase [EC:1.14.13.81]
K04036  
divinyl protochlorophyllide a 8-vinyl-reductase [EC:1.-.-.-]
K00218  
protochlorophyllide reductase [EC:1.3.1.33]
K04037  
light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase subunit L [EC:1.3.7.7]
K04038  
light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase subunit N [EC:1.3.7.7]
K04039  
light-independent protochlorophyllide reductase subunit B [EC:1.3.7.7]
K04040  
chlorophyll synthase [EC:2.5.1.62]
K08099  
chlorophyllase [EC:3.1.1.14]
K13600  
chlorophyllide a oxygenase [EC:1.14.13.122]
K13606  
chlorophyll(ide) b reductase [EC:1.1.1.294]
K18010  
7-hydroxymethyl chlorophyll a reductase [EC:1.17.7.2]
K13544  
pheophorbidase [EC:3.1.1.82]
K13071  
pheophorbide a oxygenase [EC:1.14.12.20]
K13545  
red chlorophyll catabolite reductase [EC:1.3.1.80]
K11333  
chlorophyllide a reductase subunit X [EC:1.3.99.35]
K11334  
chlorophyllide a reductase subunit Y [EC:1.3.99.35]
K11335  
chlorophyllide a reductase subunit Z [EC:1.3.99.35]
K11336  
3-vinyl bacteriochlorophyllide hydratase [EC:4.2.1.-]
K11337  
3-hydroxyethyl bacteriochlorophyllide a dehydrogenase [EC:1.-.-.-]
K10960  
geranylgeranyl reductase [EC:1.3.1.83]
K13601  
bacteriochlorophyll C8 methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.-]
K13602  
bacteriochlorophyll C12 methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.-]
K13603  
3-vinyl bacteriochlorophyllide hydratase [EC:4.2.1.-]
K13604  
bacteriochlorophyll C20 methyltransferase [EC:2.1.1.-]
K13605  
bacteriochlorophyll c synthase [EC:2.5.1.-]
K00510  
heme oxygenase [EC:1.14.99.3]
K00214  
biliverdin reductase [EC:1.3.1.24]
K05901  
biliverdin reductase / flavin reductase [EC:1.5.1.30 1.3.1.24]
K08100  
bilirubin oxidase [EC:1.3.3.5]
K00699  
glucuronosyltransferase [EC:2.4.1.17]
K01195  
beta-glucuronidase [EC:3.2.1.31]
K05369  
15,16-dihydrobiliverdin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [EC:1.3.7.2]
K05370  
phycoerythrobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [EC:1.3.7.3]
K08101  
phytochromobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [EC:1.3.7.4]
K05371  
phycocyanobilin:ferredoxin oxidoreductase [EC:1.3.7.5]
K01764  
cytochrome c heme-lyase [EC:4.4.1.17]
K02217  
ferritin [EC:1.16.3.1]
K13624  
ceruloplasmin [EC:1.16.3.1]
K00522  
ferritin heavy chain [EC:1.16.3.1]
K13625  
ferritin light chain
Compound
C00025  
L-Glutamate
C00032  
Heme
C00037  
Glycine
C00188  
L-Threonine
C00194  
Cobamide coenzyme
C00430  
5-Aminolevulinate
C00486  
Bilirubin
C00500  
Biliverdin
C00524  
Cytochrome c
C00541  
Cob(II)alamin
C00748  
Siroheme
C00853  
Cob(I)alamin
C00931  
Porphobilinogen
C00992  
Aquacob(III)alamin
C01024  
Hydroxymethylbilane
C01051  
Uroporphyrinogen III
C01079  
Protoporphyrinogen IX
C01708  
Hemoglobin
C02139  
Chlorophyllide
C02191  
Protoporphyrin
C02463  
Precorrin 2
C02469  
Uroporphyrin III
C02800  
4,5-Dioxopentanoate
C02823  
Cyanocobalamin
C02880  
Protochlorophyllide
C02987  
L-Glutamyl-tRNA(Glu)
C03029  
Transferrin[Fe(II)]2
C03114  
Dimethylbenzimidazole
C03179  
Transferrin[Fe(III)]2
C03194  
(R)-1-Aminopropan-2-ol
C03263  
Coproporphyrinogen III
C03516  
Magnesium protoporphyrin
C03741  
(S)-4-Amino-5-oxopentanoate
C04122  
D-1-Aminopropan-2-ol O-phosphate
C04536  
Magnesium protoporphyrin monomethyl ester
C04778  
N1-(5-Phospho-alpha-D-ribosyl)-5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole
C05306  
Chlorophyll a
C05307  
Chlorophyll b
C05766  
Uroporphyrinogen I
C05767  
Uroporphyrin I
C05768  
Coproporphyrinogen I
C05769  
Coproporphyrin I
C05770  
Coproporphyrin III
C05772  
Precorrin 3A
C05773  
Cobyrinate
C05774  
Cobinamide
C05775  
alpha-Ribazole
C05777  
Coenzyme F430
C05778  
Sirohydrochlorin
C05779  
Apoferritin
C05780  
Apotransferrin
C05781  
Oxyhemoglobin
C05782  
Myoglobin
C05783  
Cytochrome a
C05784  
Catalase
C05785  
Peroxidase
C05786  
(3Z)-Phycocyanobilin
C05787  
Bilirubin beta-diglucuronide
C05789  
L-Urobilinogen
C05790  
I-Urobilinogen
C05791  
D-Urobilinogen
C05793  
L-Urobilin
C05794  
Urobilin
C05795  
D-Urobilin
C05797  
Pheophytin a
C05798  
Bacterio-pheophytins
C05912  
(3Z)-Phycoerythrobilin
C05913  
(3Z)-Phytochromobilin
C06319  
Precorrin 6Y
C06320  
Precorrin 6X
C06399  
Hydrogenobyrinate
C06406  
Precorrin 3B
C06407  
Precorrin 4
C06408  
Precorrin 8X
C06416  
Precorrin 5
C06503  
Hydrogenobyrinate a,c diamide
C06504  
Cob(II)yrinate a,c diamide
C06505  
Cob(I)yrinate a,c diamide
C06506  
Adenosyl cobyrinate a,c diamide
C06507  
Adenosyl cobyrinate hexaamide
C06508  
Adenosyl cobinamide
C06509  
Adenosyl cobinamide phosphate
C06510  
Adenosine-GDP-cobinamide
C11242  
Bacterio-chlorophyll a
C11243  
Bacterio-chlorophyll b
C11538  
Cobalt-sirohydrochlorin
C11539  
Cobalt-precorrin 3
C11540  
Cobalt-precorrin 4
C11542  
Cobalt-precorrin 6
C11543  
Cobalt-dihydro-precorrin 6
C11545  
Cobalt-precorrin 8
C11630  
15,16-Dihydrobiliverdin
C11829  
13(1)-Hydroxy-magnesium-protoporphyrin IX 13-monomethyl ester
C11830  
13(1)-Oxo-magnesium-protoporphyrin IX 13-monomethyl ester
C11831  
Divinylprotochlorophyllide
C11832  
Divinyl chlorophyllide a
C11850  
Divinylchlorophyll a
C11851  
Zn-Bacterio-chlorophyll a
C12147  
L-Threonine O-3-phosphate
C14818  
Fe2+
C14819  
Fe3+
C15670  
Heme A
C15672  
Heme O
C16242  
Cobalt-precorrin 5A
C16243  
Cobalt-precorrin 5B
C16244  
Cobalt-precorrin 7
C16540  
7(1)-Hydroxychlorophyllide a
C16541  
Chlorophyllide b
C17401  
Cobalt-factor III
C18021  
Pheophorbide a
C18022  
Red chlorophyll catabolite
C18064  
Pyropheophorbide a
C18098  
Primary fluorescent chlorophyll catabolite
C18151  
7(1)-Hydroxychlorophyll a
C18152  
3-Vinylbacteriochlorophyllide a
C18153  
3-Hydroxyethylbacteriochlorophyllide a
C18154  
3-Hydroxyethylchlorophyllide a
C18155  
Bacteriochlorophyllide a
C18156  
Bacteriochlorophyllide b
C18157  
3-Vinylbacteriochlorophyllide d
C18160  
Bacteriochlorophyllide d
C18161  
Bacteriochlorophyllide c
C18162  
Bacteriochlorophyll d
C18163  
Bacteriochlorophyll c
Reference
PMID:9461500
  Authors
Woodcock SC, Raux E, Levillayer F, Thermes C, Rambach A, Warren MJ.
  Title
Effect of mutations in the transmethylase and dehydrogenase/chelatase domains of sirohaem synthase (CysG) on sirohaem and cobalamin biosynthesis.
  Journal
Biochem J 330:121-9 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Johansson P, Hederstedt L
  Title
Organization of genes for tetrapyrrole biosynthesis in gram--positive bacteria.
  Journal
Microbiology 145 ( Pt 3):529-38 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Maggio-Hall LA, Escalante-Semerena JC.
  Title
In vitro synthesis of the nucleotide loop of cobalamin by Salmonella typhimurium enzymes.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 96:11798-803 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Roper JM, Raux E, Brindley AA, Schubert HL, Gharbia SE, Shah HN, Warren MJ.
  Title
The enigma of cobalamin (Vitamin B12) biosynthesis in Porphyromonas gingivalis. Identification and characterization of a functional corrin pathway.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 275:40316-23 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Scott AI, Roessner CA.
  Title
Biosynthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B(12)).
  Journal
Biochem Soc Trans 30:613-20 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Warren MJ, Raux E, Schubert HL, Escalante-Semerena JC.
  Title
The biosynthesis of adenosylcobalamin (vitamin B12).
  Journal
Nat Prod Rep 19:390-412 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Roessner CA, Huang KX, Warren MJ, Raux E, Scott AI.
  Title
Isolation and characterization of 14 additional genes specifying the anaerobic biosynthesis of cobalamin (vitamin B12) in Propionibacterium freudenreichii (P. shermanii).
  Journal
Microbiology 148:1845-53 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Frankenberg N, Mukougawa K, Kohchi T, Lagarias JC.
  Title
Functional genomic analysis of the HY2 family of ferredoxin-dependent bilin reductases from oxygenic photosynthetic organisms.
  Journal
Plant Cell 13:965-78 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Chew AG, Bryant DA
  Title
Chlorophyll biosynthesis in bacteria: the origins of structural and functional diversity.
  Journal
Annu Rev Microbiol 61:113-29 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Frigaard NU, Chew AG, Li H, Maresca JA, Bryant DA
  Title
Chlorobium tepidum: insights into the structure, physiology, and metabolism of a  green sulfur bacterium derived from the complete genome sequence.
  Journal
Photosynth Res 78:93-117 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Deery E, Schroeder S, Lawrence AD, Taylor SL, Seyedarabi A, Waterman J, Wilson KS, Brown D, Geeves MA, Howard MJ, Pickersgill RW, Warren MJ
  Title
An enzyme-trap approach allows isolation of intermediates in cobalamin biosynthesis.
  Journal
Nat Chem Biol 8:933-40 (2012)
Reference
  Authors
Moore SJ, Lawrence AD, Biedendieck R, Deery E, Frank S, Howard MJ, Rigby SE, Warren MJ
  Title
Elucidation of the anaerobic pathway for the corrin component of cobalamin (vitamin B12).
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:14906-11 (2013)

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