KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04721Help
Entry
ko04721                     Pathway                                

Name
Synaptic vesicle cycle
Description
Communication between neurons is mediated by the release of neurotransmitter from synaptic vesicles (SVs). At the nerve terminal, SVs cycle through repetitive episodes of exocytosis and endocytosis. SVs are filled with neurotransmitters by active transport. The loaded SVs are then docked at a specialized region of the presynaptic plasma membrane known as the active zone, where they undergo a priming reaction. Upon arrival of an action potential, Ca2+ enters through voltage-gated channels and neurotransmitter is released by exocytosis, usually in less than a millisecond. After fusion, the vesicle is retrieved by endocytosis and reloaded for another round of exocytosis.
Class
Organismal Systems; Nervous system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Synaptic vesicle cycle
ko04721

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00606  
Early infantile epileptic encephalopathy
H00700  
Centronuclear myopathy
H00749  
Episodic ataxias
H00775  
Familial or sporadic hemiplegic migraine
Other DBs
Orthology
K15015  
solute carrier family 32 (vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter)
K08155  
MFS transporter, DHA1 family, solute carrier family 18 (vesicular amine transporter), member 1/2
K14636  
MFS transporter, DHA1 family, solute carrier family 18 (vesicular acetylcholine transporter), member 3
K12302  
MFS transporter, ACS family, solute carrier family 17 (sodium-dependent inorganic phosphate cotransporter), member 6/7/8
K15290  
synaptotagmin-1
K13504  
vesicle-associated membrane protein 2
K07882  
Ras-related protein Rab-3A
K15291  
regulating synaptic membrane exocytosis protein 1
K04560  
syntaxin 1A
K08486  
syntaxin 1B/2/3
K15292  
syntaxin-binding protein 1
K15293  
protein unc-13
K15294  
complexin-1/2
K15295  
complexin-3/4
K04344  
voltage-dependent calcium channel P/Q type alpha-1A
K04849  
voltage-dependent calcium channel N type alpha-1B
K06027  
vesicle-fusing ATPase [EC:3.6.4.6]
K15296  
alpha-soluble NSF attachment protein
K01528  
dynamin GTPase [EC:3.6.5.5]
K04644  
clathrin light chain A
K04645  
clathrin light chain B
K04646  
clathrin heavy chain
K11824  
AP-2 complex subunit alpha
K11825  
AP-2 complex subunit beta-1
K11826  
AP-2 complex subunit mu-1
K11827  
AP-2 complex subunit sigma-1
K02145  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit A [EC:3.6.3.14]
K02147  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit B
K02148  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit C
K02149  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit D
K02150  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit E
K02151  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit F
K02152  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit G
K02153  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit e
K02154  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit a
K02146  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit d
K02144  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase subunit H
K02155  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase 16kDa proteolipid subunit
K03661  
V-type H+-transporting ATPase 21kDa proteolipid subunit
Compound
C00002  
ATP
C00025  
L-Glutamate
C00037  
Glycine
C00076  
Calcium cation
C00080  
H+
C00334  
4-Aminobutanoate
C00388  
Histamine
C00547  
L-Noradrenaline
C00780  
Serotonin
C01996  
Acetylcholine
C03758  
Dopamine
C16041  
Leu-enkephalin
Reference
  Authors
Li L, Chin LS
  Title
The molecular machinery of synaptic vesicle exocytosis.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 60:942-60 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Nestler EJ, Hyman SE, Malenka RC.
  Title
Molecular neuropharmacology: A foundation for clinical neuroscience
  Journal
The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Chapman ER
  Title
How does synaptotagmin trigger neurotransmitter release?
  Journal
Annu Rev Biochem 77:615-41 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Benfenati F, Onofri F, Giovedi S
  Title
Protein-protein interactions and protein modules in the control of neurotransmitter release.
  Journal
Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 354:243-57 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
de Saint Basile G, Menasche G, Fischer A
  Title
Molecular mechanisms of biogenesis and exocytosis of cytotoxic granules.
  Journal
Nat Rev Immunol 10:568-79 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Carr CM, Munson M
  Title
Tag team action at the synapse.
  Journal
EMBO Rep 8:834-8 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Sudhof TC
  Title
The synaptic vesicle cycle.
  Journal
Annu Rev Neurosci 27:509-47 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Gundelfinger ED, Kessels MM, Qualmann B
  Title
Temporal and spatial coordination of exocytosis and endocytosis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 4:127-39 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Tang J, Maximov A, Shin OH, Dai H, Rizo J, Sudhof TC
  Title
A complexin/synaptotagmin 1 switch controls fast synaptic vesicle exocytosis.
  Journal
Cell 126:1175-87 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Chapman ER
  Title
Synaptotagmin: a Ca(2+) sensor that triggers exocytosis?
  Journal
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 3:498-508 (2002)
Reference
PMID:7791897
  Authors
Sudhof TC
  Title
The synaptic vesicle cycle: a cascade of protein-protein interactions.
  Journal
Nature 375:645-53 (1995)
Reference
  Authors
Rizo J, Sudhof TC
  Title
Snares and Munc18 in synaptic vesicle fusion.
  Journal
Nat Rev Neurosci 3:641-53 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Malsam J, Kreye S, Sollner TH
  Title
Membrane fusion: SNAREs and regulation.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 65:2814-32 (2008)

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