KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04978Help
Entry
ko04978                     Pathway                                

Name
Mineral absorption
Description
Minerals are one of the five fundamental groups of nutrients needed to sustain life. Of the minerals, calcium plays innumerable roles in our bodies, serving as a main component of bone as well as an intracellular messenger in muscle contraction/relaxation, neural networks, the immune system, and endocrine/exocrine cells. Iron, copper, and other metals are required for redox reactions (as cofactors) and for oxygen transport and binding (in hemoglobin and myoglobin). Many enzymes require specific metal atoms to complete their catalytic functions. Animal tissues need moderate quantities of some elements (Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, and Cl) and trace amounts of others (Mn, Fe, I, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Se). The minerals are absorbed by either passive or active transport systems through the intestinal mucosa, often using specialized transport proteins, such as ferritin for Fe3+ and vitamin D-induced protein for calcium.
Class
Organismal Systems; Digestive system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Mineral absorption
ko04978

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00784  
Localized autosomal recessive hypotrichosis
H00808  
Idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs)
H00833  
Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)
H00843  
Hartnup disorder
H00856  
Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMN)
H00905  
Iminoglycinuria
H01143  
Vitamin D-dependent rickets
H01145  
Atransferrinemia
H01174  
Congenital diarrhea
H01196  
Hypochromic microcytic anemia
H01210  
Hypomagnesemia
H01252  
Hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM)
H01304  
Hyperglycinuria
Orthology
K08539  
vitamin D3 receptor
K04981  
transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 6 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04982  
transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04975  
transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6
K14734  
S100 calcium binding protein G
K14078  
solute carrier family 26 (chloride anion exchanger), member 3
K14704  
solute carrier family 26 (sulfate anion transporter), member 6
K14706  
solute carrier family 26 (sulfate anion transporter), member 9
K05011  
chloride channel 2
K12040  
solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 3
K14158  
solute carrier family 5 (sodium/glucose cotransporter), member 1
K05334  
solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter) member 19
K01539  
sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha [EC:3.6.3.9]
K01540  
sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta
K01538  
sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma (FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 2)
K00510  
heme oxygenase [EC:1.14.99.3]
K08370  
cytochrome b reductase 1
K12347  
natural resistance-associated macrophage protein
K00522  
ferritin heavy chain [EC:1.16.3.2]
K13625  
ferritin light chain
K14685  
solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1
K14735  
hephaestin [EC:1.16.3.1]
K14736  
transferrin
K14710  
solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 4
K14688  
solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 1
K14686  
solute carrier family 31 (copper transporter), member 1
K14737  
metalloreductase STEAP1 [EC:1.16.1.-]
K14738  
metalloreductase STEAP2 [EC:1.16.1.-]
K14739  
metallothionein 1/2
K07213  
copper chaperone
Compound
C00009  
Orthophosphate
C00031  
D-Glucose
C00032  
Heme
C00037  
Glycine
C00038  
Zinc cation
C00041  
L-Alanine
C00064  
L-Glutamine
C00065  
L-Serine
C00070  
Copper
C00073  
L-Methionine
C00076  
Calcium cation
C00078  
L-Tryptophan
C00079  
L-Phenylalanine
C00080  
H+
C00123  
L-Leucine
C00124  
D-Galactose
C00148  
L-Proline
C00152  
L-Asparagine
C00183  
L-Valine
C00188  
L-Threonine
C00238  
Potassium cation
C00288  
HCO3-
C00305  
Magnesium cation
C00407  
L-Isoleucine
C00698  
Cl-
C01330  
Sodium cation
C01673  
Calcitriol
C14818  
Fe2+
C14819  
Fe3+
Reference
  Authors
Perez AV, Picotto G, Carpentieri AR, Rivoira MA, Peralta Lopez ME, Tolosa de Talamoni NG
  Title
Minireview on regulation of intestinal calcium absorption. Emphasis on molecular  mechanisms of transcellular pathway.
  Journal
Digestion 77:22-34 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Khanal RC, Nemere I
  Title
Regulation of intestinal calcium transport.
  Journal
Annu Rev Nutr 28:179-96 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Hoenderop JG, Nilius B, Bindels RJ
  Title
Calcium absorption across epithelia.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 85:373-422 (2005)
Reference
  Authors
Bouillon R, Van Cromphaut S, Carmeliet G
  Title
Intestinal calcium absorption: Molecular vitamin D mediated mechanisms.
  Journal
J Cell Biochem 88:332-9 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Chua AC, Graham RM, Trinder D, Olynyk JK
  Title
The regulation of cellular iron metabolism.
  Journal
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 44:413-59 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
West AR, Oates PS
  Title
Mechanisms of heme iron absorption: current questions and controversies.
  Journal
World J Gastroenterol 14:4101-10 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Dunn LL, Rahmanto YS, Richardson DR
  Title
Iron uptake and metabolism in the new millennium.
  Journal
Trends Cell Biol 17:93-100 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Donovan A, Roy CN, Andrews NC
  Title
The ins and outs of iron homeostasis.
  Journal
Physiology (Bethesda) 21:115-23 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Lonnerdal B
  Title
Intestinal regulation of copper homeostasis: a developmental perspective.
  Journal
Am J Clin Nutr 88:846S-50S (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Prohaska JR
  Title
Role of copper transporters in copper homeostasis.
  Journal
Am J Clin Nutr 88:826S-9S (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Wang X, Zhou B
  Title
Dietary zinc absorption: A play of Zips and ZnTs in the gut.
  Journal
IUBMB Life 62:176-82 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Lichten LA, Cousins RJ
  Title
Mammalian zinc transporters: nutritional and physiologic regulation.
  Journal
Annu Rev Nutr 29:153-76 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Quamme GA
  Title
Recent developments in intestinal magnesium absorption.
  Journal
Curr Opin Gastroenterol 24:230-5 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Donowitz M, Mohan S, Zhu CX, Chen TE, Lin R, Cha B, Zachos NC, Murtazina R, Sarker R, Li X
  Title
NHE3 regulatory complexes.
  Journal
J Exp Biol 212:1638-46 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Kato A, Romero MF
  Title
Regulation of Electroneutral NaCl Absorption by the Small Intestine.
  Journal
Annu Rev Physiol 73:261-81 (2011)
Reference
  Authors
Sabbagh Y, O'Brien SP, Song W, Boulanger JH, Stockmann A, Arbeeny C, Schiavi SC
  Title
Intestinal npt2b plays a major role in phosphate absorption and homeostasis.
  Journal
J Am Soc Nephrol 20:2348-58 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Marks J, Srai SK, Biber J, Murer H, Unwin RJ, Debnam ES
  Title
Intestinal phosphate absorption and the effect of vitamin D: a comparison of rats with mice.
  Journal
Exp Physiol 91:531-7 (2006)

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