KEGG   PATHWAY: ko04978Help
Entry
ko04978                     Pathway                                

Name
Mineral absorption
Description
Minerals are one of the five fundamental groups of nutrients needed to sustain life. Of the minerals, calcium plays innumerable roles in our bodies, serving as a main component of bone as well as an intracellular messenger in muscle contraction/relaxation, neural networks, the immune system, and endocrine/exocrine cells. Iron, copper, and other metals are required for redox reactions (as cofactors) and for oxygen transport and binding (in hemoglobin and myoglobin). Many enzymes require specific metal atoms to complete their catalytic functions. Animal tissues need moderate quantities of some elements (Ca, P, K, Na, Mg, S, and Cl) and trace amounts of others (Mn, Fe, I, Co, Cr, Cu, Zn, and Se). The minerals are absorbed by either passive or active transport systems through the intestinal mucosa, often using specialized transport proteins, such as ferritin for Fe3+ and vitamin D-induced protein for calcium.
Class
Organismal Systems; Digestive system
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ko04978  Mineral absorption
ko04978

Ortholog table
Disease
H00784  Localized autosomal recessive hypotrichosis
H00808  Idiopathic generalized epilepsies (IGEs)
H00833  Neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA)
H00843  Hartnup disorder
H00905  Iminoglycinuria
H01143  Vitamin D-dependent rickets
H01145  Atransferrinemia
H01174  Congenital diarrhea
H01196  Hypochromic microcytic anemia
H01210  Hypomagnesemia
H01252  Hereditary folate malabsorption (HFM)
H01304  Hyperglycinuria
H01593  Osteoporosis
Orthology
K08539  vitamin D3 receptor
K04981  transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 6 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04982  transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily M member 7 [EC:2.7.11.1]
K04975  transient receptor potential cation channel subfamily V member 6
K14734  S100 calcium binding protein G
K14078  solute carrier family 26 (chloride anion exchanger), member 3
K14704  solute carrier family 26 (sulfate anion transporter), member 6
K14706  solute carrier family 26 (sulfate anion transporter), member 9
K05011  chloride channel 2
K12040  solute carrier family 9 (sodium/hydrogen exchanger), member 3
K14158  solute carrier family 5 (sodium/glucose cotransporter), member 1
K05334  solute carrier family 6 (neurotransmitter transporter) member 19
K01539  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit alpha [EC:3.6.3.9]
K01540  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta
K01538  sodium/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit gamma (FXYD domain-containing ion transport regulator 2)
K00510  heme oxygenase 1 [EC:1.14.14.18]
K21418  heme oxygenase 2 [EC:1.14.14.18]
K08370  cytochrome b reductase 1 [EC:1.16.5.1]
K21398  natural resistance-associated macrophage protein 2
K00522  ferritin heavy chain [EC:1.16.3.2]
K13625  ferritin light chain
K14685  solute carrier family 40 (iron-regulated transporter), member 1
K14735  hephaestin [EC:1.16.3.1]
K14736  transferrin
K14710  solute carrier family 39 (zinc transporter), member 4
K14688  solute carrier family 30 (zinc transporter), member 1
K14686  solute carrier family 31 (copper transporter), member 1
K14737  metalloreductase STEAP1 [EC:1.16.1.-]
K14738  metalloreductase STEAP2 [EC:1.16.1.-]
K14739  metallothionein 1/2
K07213  copper chaperone
Compound
C00009  Orthophosphate
C00031  D-Glucose
C00032  Heme
C00037  Glycine
C00038  Zinc cation
C00041  L-Alanine
C00064  L-Glutamine
C00065  L-Serine
C00070  Copper
C00073  L-Methionine
C00076  Calcium cation
C00078  L-Tryptophan
C00079  L-Phenylalanine
C00080  H+
C00123  L-Leucine
C00124  D-Galactose
C00148  L-Proline
C00152  L-Asparagine
C00183  L-Valine
C00188  L-Threonine
C00238  Potassium cation
C00288  HCO3-
C00305  Magnesium cation
C00407  L-Isoleucine
C00698  Cl-
C01330  Sodium cation
C01673  Calcitriol
C14818  Fe2+
C14819  Fe3+
Reference
  Authors
Perez AV, Picotto G, Carpentieri AR, Rivoira MA, Peralta Lopez ME, Tolosa de Talamoni NG
  Title
Minireview on regulation of intestinal calcium absorption. Emphasis on molecular mechanisms of transcellular pathway.
  Journal
Digestion 77:22-34 (2008)
DOI:10.1159/000116623
Reference
  Authors
Khanal RC, Nemere I
  Title
Regulation of intestinal calcium transport.
  Journal
Annu Rev Nutr 28:179-96 (2008)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.nutr.010308.161202
Reference
  Authors
Hoenderop JG, Nilius B, Bindels RJ
  Title
Calcium absorption across epithelia.
  Journal
Physiol Rev 85:373-422 (2005)
DOI:10.1152/physrev.00003.2004
Reference
  Authors
Bouillon R, Van Cromphaut S, Carmeliet G
  Title
Intestinal calcium absorption: Molecular vitamin D mediated mechanisms.
  Journal
J Cell Biochem 88:332-9 (2003)
DOI:10.1002/jcb.10360
Reference
  Authors
Chua AC, Graham RM, Trinder D, Olynyk JK
  Title
The regulation of cellular iron metabolism.
  Journal
Crit Rev Clin Lab Sci 44:413-59 (2007)
DOI:10.1080/10408360701428257
Reference
  Authors
West AR, Oates PS
  Title
Mechanisms of heme iron absorption: current questions and controversies.
  Journal
World J Gastroenterol 14:4101-10 (2008)
DOI:10.3748/wjg.14.4101
Reference
  Authors
Dunn LL, Rahmanto YS, Richardson DR
  Title
Iron uptake and metabolism in the new millennium.
  Journal
Trends Cell Biol 17:93-100 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.tcb.2006.12.003
Reference
  Authors
Donovan A, Roy CN, Andrews NC
  Title
The ins and outs of iron homeostasis.
  Journal
Physiology (Bethesda) 21:115-23 (2006)
DOI:10.1152/physiol.00052.2005
Reference
  Authors
Lonnerdal B
  Title
Intestinal regulation of copper homeostasis: a developmental perspective.
  Journal
Am J Clin Nutr 88:846S-50S (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Prohaska JR
  Title
Role of copper transporters in copper homeostasis.
  Journal
Am J Clin Nutr 88:826S-9S (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Wang X, Zhou B
  Title
Dietary zinc absorption: A play of Zips and ZnTs in the gut.
  Journal
IUBMB Life 62:176-82 (2010)
DOI:10.1002/iub.291
Reference
  Authors
Lichten LA, Cousins RJ
  Title
Mammalian zinc transporters: nutritional and physiologic regulation.
  Journal
Annu Rev Nutr 29:153-76 (2009)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-nutr-033009-083312
Reference
  Authors
Quamme GA
  Title
Recent developments in intestinal magnesium absorption.
  Journal
Curr Opin Gastroenterol 24:230-5 (2008)
DOI:10.1097/MOG.0b013e3282f37b59
Reference
  Authors
Donowitz M, Mohan S, Zhu CX, Chen TE, Lin R, Cha B, Zachos NC, Murtazina R, Sarker R, Li X
  Title
NHE3 regulatory complexes.
  Journal
J Exp Biol 212:1638-46 (2009)
DOI:10.1242/jeb.028605
Reference
  Authors
Kato A, Romero MF
  Title
Regulation of Electroneutral NaCl Absorption by the Small Intestine.
  Journal
Annu Rev Physiol 73:261-81 (2011)
DOI:10.1146/annurev-physiol-012110-142244
Reference
  Authors
Sabbagh Y, O'Brien SP, Song W, Boulanger JH, Stockmann A, Arbeeny C, Schiavi SC
  Title
Intestinal npt2b plays a major role in phosphate absorption and homeostasis.
  Journal
J Am Soc Nephrol 20:2348-58 (2009)
DOI:10.1681/ASN.2009050559
Reference
  Authors
Marks J, Srai SK, Biber J, Murer H, Unwin RJ, Debnam ES
  Title
Intestinal phosphate absorption and the effect of vitamin D: a comparison of rats with mice.
  Journal
Exp Physiol 91:531-7 (2006)
DOI:10.1113/expphysiol.2005.032516

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