KEGG   PATHWAY: ko05143Help
Entry
ko05143                     Pathway                                

Name
African trypanosomiasis
Description
Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite responsible for African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness), are spread by the tsetse fly in sub-Saharan Africa. The parasites are able to pass through the blood-brain barrier and cause neurological damage by inducing cytokines like TNF alpha, IFN gamma, and IL1. These cytokines and other metabolites such as nitric oxide and somnogenic prostaglandin D2 disturb circadian rhythms in patients with African trypanosomiasis.
Class
Human Diseases; Infectious diseases
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
African trypanosomiasis
ko05143

All organismsOrtholog table
Disease
H00357  
African trypanosomiasis
Orthology
K14473  
variant surface glycoprotein
K06856  
immunoglobulin heavy chain
K10161  
toll-like receptor 9
K04729  
myeloid differentiation primary response protein MyD88
K14474  
T-lymphocyte triggering factor
K01404  
leishmanolysin [EC:3.4.24.36]
K01392  
thimet oligopeptidase [EC:3.4.24.15]
K01354  
oligopeptidase B [EC:3.4.21.83]
K13537  
cysteine peptidase B [EC:3.4.22.-]
K14475  
inhibitor of cysteine peptidase
K08757  
apolipoprotein A-I
K14477  
haptoglobin-related protein
K13822  
hemoglobin subunit alpha
K13823  
hemoglobin subunit beta
K14478  
haptoglobin-hemoglobin receptor
K05443  
interleukin 10
K05406  
interleukin 12A
K05425  
interleukin 12B
K05482  
interleukin 18
K04687  
interferon gamma
K03156  
tumor necrosis factor superfamily, member 2
K04519  
interleukin 1 beta
K05405  
interleukin 6
K04389  
tumor necrosis factor ligand superfamily member 6
K04390  
tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily member 6
K14479  
procyclin
K06527  
vascular cell adhesion molecule 1
K06494  
selectin, endothelial cell
K06490  
intercellular adhesion molecule 1
K06241  
laminin, alpha 4
K00463  
indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase [EC:1.13.11.52]
K04234  
coagulation factor II (thrombin) receptor-like 1
K04634  
guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(q) subunit alpha
K05858  
phosphatidylinositol phospholipase C, beta [EC:3.1.4.11]
K02677  
classical protein kinase C [EC:2.7.11.13]
Compound
C00076  
Calcium cation
C00078  
L-Tryptophan
C00165  
Diacylglycerol
C00306  
Bradykinin
C00328  
L-Kynurenine
C00533  
Nitric oxide
C00584  
Prostaglandin E2
C00696  
Prostaglandin D2
C01245  
D-myo-Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate
C16003  
Atrial natriuretic peptide
Reference
  Authors
Antoine-Moussiaux N, Buscher P, Desmecht D
  Title
Host-parasite interactions in trypanosomiasis: on the way to an antidisease strategy.
  Journal
Infect Immun 77:1276-84 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Enanga B, Burchmore RJ, Stewart ML, Barrett MP
  Title
Sleeping sickness and the brain.
  Journal
Cell Mol Life Sci 59:845-58 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Bisser S, Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer ON, Toure FS, Taoufiq Z, Bouteille B, Buguet A, Mazier D
  Title
Harbouring in the brain: A focus on immune evasion mechanisms and their deleterious effects in malaria and human African trypanosomiasis.
  Journal
Int J Parasitol 36:529-40 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Masocha W, Rottenberg ME, Kristensson K
  Title
Migration of African trypanosomes across the blood-brain barrier.
  Journal
Physiol Behav 92:110-4 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Lonsdale-Eccles JD, Grab DJ
  Title
Trypanosome hydrolases and the blood-brain barrier.
  Journal
Trends Parasitol 18:17-9 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Grab DJ, Kennedy PG
  Title
Traversal of human and animal trypanosomes across the blood-brain barrier.
  Journal
J Neurovirol 14:344-51 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Kristensson K, Nygard M, Bertini G, Bentivoglio M
  Title
African trypanosome infections of the nervous system: parasite entry and effects  on sleep and synaptic functions.
  Journal
Prog Neurobiol 91:152-71 (2010)
Reference
  Authors
Pays E, Vanhollebeke B
  Title
Human innate immunity against African trypanosomes.
  Journal
Curr Opin Immunol 21:493-8 (2009)
Reference
PMID:9574925
  Authors
Donelson JE, Hill KL, El-Sayed NM
  Title
Multiple mechanisms of immune evasion by African trypanosomes.
  Journal
Mol Biochem Parasitol 91:51-66 (1998)
Reference
  Authors
Grab DJ, Garcia-Garcia JC, Nikolskaia OV, Kim YV, Brown A, Pardo CA, Zhang Y, Becker KG, Wilson BA, de A Lima AP, Scharfstein J, Dumler JS
  Title
Protease activated receptor signaling is required for African trypanosome traversal of human brain microvascular endothelial cells.
  Journal
PLoS Negl Trop Dis 3:e479 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Vanhollebeke B, Pays E
  Title
The trypanolytic factor of human serum: many ways to enter the parasite, a single way to kill.
  Journal
Mol Microbiol 76:806-14 (2010)

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