KEGG   PATHWAY: mcc05416Help
Entry
mcc05416                    Pathway                                

Name
Viral myocarditis - Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey)
Description
Myocarditis is a cardiac disease associated with inflammation and injury of the myocardium. It results from various etiologies, both noninfectious and infectious, but coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3) is still considered the dominant etiological agent. Myocarditis may be caused by direct cytopathic effects of virus, a pathologic immune response to persistent virus, or autoimmunity triggered by the viral infection. The virus enters the myocyte through internalization of the coxsackie-adenoviral receptor (CAR) and its coreceptor, decay-accelerating factor (DAF). Viral proteases cleave various proteins in the host cell. One example is viral protease 2A, which cleaves eukaryote initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) and the dystrophin protein, resulting in a complete shutdown of cap-dependent RNA translation and cytoskeletal destruction in infected cardiomyocytes, respectively. CVB3 also cleaves the member of the Bcl-2 family Bid, leading to apoptosis. CVB3 infection also induces the cleavage of cyclin D protein through a proteasome-dependent pathway, leading to the host cell-growth arrest. Viral infection and necrosis of myocytes may lead to the release of intracellular antigens, resulting in activation of self-reactive T cells. CVB infection is a significant cause of dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) as well as myocarditis. Epidemiologically, myocarditis underlies a significant portion of patients with DCM.
Class
Human Diseases; Cardiovascular diseases
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
Viral myocarditis
mcc05416

All organismsOrtholog table
Organism
Macaca mulatta (rhesus monkey) [GN:mcc]
Gene
716409  
coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor-like; K06788 coxsackievirus and adenovirus receptor [KO:K06788]
714370  
complement decay-accelerating factor-like; K04006 decay accelerating factor [KO:K04006]
574214  
FYN; FYN oncogene related to SRC, FGR, YES [KO:K05703] [EC:2.7.10.2]
704449  
CAV1; caveolin 1, caveolae protein, 22kDa [KO:K06278]
722449  
ABL1; c-abl oncogene 1, non-receptor tyrosine kinase [KO:K06619] [EC:2.7.10.2]
717037  
ABL2; v-abl Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 2 [KO:K08887] [EC:2.7.10.2]
695596  
ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1-like; K04392 Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 [KO:K04392]
717755  
40S ribosomal protein S0-like; K04392 Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 [KO:K04392]
696709  
RAC2; ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 2 (rho family, small GTP binding protein Rac2) [KO:K07860]
719305  
ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3-like; K07861 Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 3 [KO:K07861]
715190  
delta-sarcoglycan-like; K12563 delta-sarcoglycan [KO:K12563]
721411  
gamma-sarcoglycan-like; K12564 gamma-sarcoglycan [KO:K12564]
704493  
SGCA; sarcoglycan, alpha (50kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein) [KO:K12565]
702684  
SGCB; sarcoglycan, beta (43kDa dystrophin-associated glycoprotein) [KO:K12566]
706179  
DAG1; dystroglycan 1 (dystrophin-associated glycoprotein 1) [KO:K06265]
708073  
DMD; dystrophin [KO:K10366]
700393  
actin; K05692 actin beta/gamma 1 [KO:K05692]
713687  
ACTG1; actin, gamma 1 [KO:K05692]
574285  
ACTB; actin, beta [KO:K05692]
actin; K05692 actin beta/gamma 1 [KO:K05692]
704923  
EIF4G1; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 1 [KO:K03260]
705510  
EIF4G2; eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma, 2 [KO:K03260]
717555  
eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4 gamma 3-like; K03260 translation initiation factor 4G [KO:K03260]
574320  
CCND1; G1/S-specific cyclin-D1 [KO:K04503]
702781  
CASP8; caspase 8, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [KO:K04398] [EC:3.4.22.61]
uncharacterized LOC100426724; K04726 BH3 interacting domain death agonist [KO:K04726]
705449  
cytochrome c-like; K08738 cytochrome c [KO:K08738]
695875  
cytochrome c-like; K08738 cytochrome c [KO:K08738]
716056  
cytochrome c-like; K08738 cytochrome c [KO:K08738]
711309  
cytochrome c-like; K08738 cytochrome c [KO:K08738]
694977  
cytochrome c pseudogene; K08738 cytochrome c [KO:K08738]
698225  
cytochrome c-like; K08738 cytochrome c [KO:K08738]
701246  
cytochrome c-like; K08738 cytochrome c [KO:K08738]
699951  
cytochrome c-like; K08738 cytochrome c [KO:K08738]
702488  
cytochrome c-like; K08738 cytochrome c [KO:K08738]
CYCS; cytochrome c, somatic [KO:K08738]
694544  
CASP9; caspase 9, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [KO:K04399] [EC:3.4.22.62]
694473  
CASP3; caspase 3, apoptosis-related cysteine peptidase [KO:K02187] [EC:3.4.22.56]
713471  
MYH6; myosin, heavy chain 6, cardiac muscle, alpha [KO:K17751]
MYH7; myosin, heavy chain 7, cardiac muscle, beta [KO:K17751]
707468  
myosin-2-like; K17751 myosin heavy chain 6/7 [KO:K17751]
574160  
CD40LG; CD40 ligand [KO:K03161]
707749  
CD40; CD40 molecule, TNF receptor superfamily member 5 [KO:K03160]
692100  
MAMU-DRB1; MHC class II antigen [KO:K06752]
717870  
MAMU-DMA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM alpha [KO:K06752]
717969  
MAMU-DPB; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP beta [KO:K06752]
705588  
HLA class II histocompatibility antigen; K06752 major histocompatibility complex, class II [KO:K06752]
717947  
MAMU-DOA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DO alpha [KO:K06752]
717992  
MAMU-DPA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DP alpha [KO:K06752]
717623  
HLA-DQA1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1-like [KO:K06752]
717702  
MAMU-DOB; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DO beta [KO:K06752]
MAMU-DRA; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DR alpha [KO:K06752]
720582  
MAMU-DQA1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ alpha 1 [KO:K06752]
716823  
MAMU-DQB1; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DQ beta 1 [KO:K06752]
MAMU-DMB; major histocompatibility complex, class II, DM beta [KO:K06752]
MAMU-DRB5; HLA class II histocompatibility antigen, DRB1-4 beta chain [KO:K06752]
708792  
uncharacterized LOC708792; K10784 T cell receptor alpha chain V region [KO:K10784]
715737  
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen; K06751 major histocompatibility complex, class I [KO:K06751]
694372  
CHLA class I histocompatibility antigen; K06751 major histocompatibility complex, class I [KO:K06751]
700391  
MAMU-B; MHC class I antigen [KO:K06751]
709076  
MAMU-F; major histocompatibility complex, class I, F [KO:K06751]
711832  
MAMU-A; major histocompatibility complex, class I, A [KO:K06751]
720372  
MAMU-I; major histocompatibility complex, class I, I [KO:K06751]
722711  
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen; K06751 major histocompatibility complex, class I [KO:K06751]
723284  
class I histocompatibility antigen; K06751 major histocompatibility complex, class I [KO:K06751]
723473  
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen; K06751 major histocompatibility complex, class I [KO:K06751]
723552  
CHLA class I histocompatibility antigen; K06751 major histocompatibility complex, class I [KO:K06751]
MAMU-B18; major histocompatibility complex, class I, B [KO:K06751]
719483  
class I histocompatibility antigen; K06751 major histocompatibility complex, class I [KO:K06751]
720132  
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen; K06751 major histocompatibility complex, class I [KO:K06751]
711532  
MAMU-E; major histocompatibility complex, class I, E [KO:K06751]
699243  
MAMU-A3; major histocompatibility complex, class I, A [KO:K06751]
714964  
HLA class I histocompatibility antigen; K06751 major histocompatibility complex, class I [KO:K06751]
732518  
CD80; CD80 molecule [KO:K05412]
714390  
CD86; CD86 molecule [KO:K05413]
705313  
CD28; CD28 molecule [KO:K06470]
710241  
PRF1; perforin 1 (pore forming protein) [KO:K07818]
711945  
ITGAL; integrin, alpha L (antigen CD11A (p180), lymphocyte function-associated antigen 1 [KO:K05718]
712280  
ICAM1; intercellular adhesion molecule 1 [KO:K06490]
721122  
uncharacterized LOC721122; K06856 immunoglobulin heavy chain [KO:K06856]
Reference
  Authors
Esfandiarei M, McManus BM
  Title
Molecular biology and pathogenesis of viral myocarditis.
  Journal
Annu Rev Pathol 3:127-55 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Badorff C, Knowlton KU
  Title
Dystrophin disruption in enterovirus-induced myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy: from bench to bedside.
  Journal
Med Microbiol Immunol 193:121-6 (2004)
Reference
  Authors
Maekawa Y, Ouzounian M, Opavsky MA, Liu PP
  Title
Connecting the missing link between dilated cardiomyopathy and viral myocarditis: virus, cytoskeleton, and innate immunity.
  Journal
Circulation 115:5-8 (2007)
Reference
  Authors
Pankuweit S, Portig I, Maisch B
  Title
Pathophysiology of cardiac inflammation: molecular mechanisms.
  Journal
Herz 27:669-76 (2002)
Reference
  Authors
Gao G, Luo H
  Title
The ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in viral infections.
  Journal
Can J Physiol Pharmacol 84:5-14 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Coyne CB, Bergelson JM
  Title
Virus-induced Abl and Fyn kinase signals permit coxsackievirus entry through epithelial tight junctions.
  Journal
Cell 124:119-31 (2006)
Reference
  Authors
Badorff C, Lee GH, Knowlton KU
  Title
Enteroviral cardiomyopathy: bad news for the dystrophin-glycoprotein complex.
  Journal
Herz 25:227-32 (2000)
Reference
  Authors
Knowlton KU
  Title
CVB infection and mechanisms of viral cardiomyopathy.
  Journal
Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 323:315-35 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Castellano G, Affuso F, Di Conza P, Fazio S
  Title
Myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy: possible connections and treatments.
  Journal
J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown) 9:666-71 (2008)
Reference
  Authors
Cooper LT Jr
  Title
Myocarditis.
  Journal
N Engl J Med 360:1526-38 (2009)
Reference
  Authors
Kawai C
  Title
From myocarditis to cardiomyopathy: mechanisms of inflammation and cell death: learning from the past for the future.
  Journal
Circulation 99:1091-100 (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Liu PP, Mason JW
  Title
Advances in the understanding of myocarditis.
  Journal
Circulation 104:1076-82 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Mason JW
  Title
Myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy: an inflammatory link.
  Journal
Cardiovasc Res 60:5-10 (2003)
Reference
  Authors
Tam PE
  Title
Coxsackievirus myocarditis: interplay between virus and host in the pathogenesis of heart disease.
  Journal
Viral Immunol 19:133-46 (2006)
KO pathway
 

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