KEGG   PATHWAY: mmu05212Help
Entry
mmu05212                    Pathway                                

Name
Pancreatic cancer - Mus musculus (mouse)
Description
Infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Normal duct epithelium progresses to infiltrating cancer through a series of histologically defined precursors (PanINs). The overexpression of HER-2/neu and activating point mutations in the K-ras gene occur early, inactivation of the p16 gene at an intermediate stage, and the inactivation of p53, SMAD4, and BRCA2 occur relatively late. Activated K-ras engages multiple effector pathways.  Although EGF receptors are conventionally regarded as upstream activators of RAS proteins, they can also act as RAS signal transducers via RAS-induced autocrine activation of the EGFR family ligands. Moreover, PDA shows extensive genomic instability and aneuploidy. Telomere attrition and mutations in p53 and BRCA2 are likely to contribute to these phenotypes. Inactivation of the SMAD4 tumour suppressor gene leads to loss of the inhibitory influence of the transforming growth factor-beta signalling pathway.
Class
Human Diseases; Cancers
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
mmu05212  Pancreatic cancer
mmu05212

Ortholog table
Organism
Mus musculus (mouse) [GN:mmu]
Gene
16653  Kras; Kirsten rat sarcoma viral oncogene homolog [KO:K07827]
18706  Pik3ca; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit alpha [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
18707  Pik3cd; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit delta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
74769  Pik3cb; phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit beta [KO:K00922] [EC:2.7.1.153]
18709  Pik3r2; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 2 [KO:K02649]
18708  Pik3r1; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 1 [KO:K02649]
18710  Pik3r3; phosphoinositide-3-kinase regulatory subunit 3 [KO:K02649]
73341  Arhgef6; Rac/Cdc42 guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) 6 [KO:K05729]
19353  Rac1; RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 1 [KO:K04392]
19354  Rac2; RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 2 [KO:K07860]
170758  Rac3; RAS-related C3 botulinum substrate 3 [KO:K07861]
18033  Nfkb1; nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells 1, p105 [KO:K02580]
19697  Rela; v-rel reticuloendotheliosis viral oncogene homolog A (avian) [KO:K04735]
11651  Akt1; thymoma viral proto-oncogene 1 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
11652  Akt2; thymoma viral proto-oncogene 2 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
23797  Akt3; thymoma viral proto-oncogene 3 [KO:K04456] [EC:2.7.11.1]
12675  Chuk; conserved helix-loop-helix ubiquitous kinase [KO:K04467] [EC:2.7.11.10]
16150  Ikbkb; inhibitor of kappaB kinase beta [KO:K07209] [EC:2.7.11.10]
16151  Ikbkg; inhibitor of kappaB kinase gamma [KO:K07210]
12015  Bad; BCL2-associated agonist of cell death [KO:K02158]
12048  Bcl2l1; BCL2-like 1 [KO:K04570]
12371  Casp9; caspase 9 [KO:K04399] [EC:3.4.22.62]
11836  Araf; Araf proto-oncogene, serine/threonine kinase [KO:K08845] [EC:2.7.11.1]
109880  Braf; Braf transforming gene [KO:K04365] [EC:2.7.11.1]
110157  Raf1; v-raf-leukemia viral oncogene 1 [KO:K04366] [EC:2.7.11.1]
26395  Map2k1; mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 [KO:K04368] [EC:2.7.12.2]
26413  Mapk1; mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
26417  Mapk3; mitogen-activated protein kinase 3 [KO:K04371] [EC:2.7.11.24]
26419  Mapk8; mitogen-activated protein kinase 8 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
26420  Mapk9; mitogen-activated protein kinase 9 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
26414  Mapk10; mitogen-activated protein kinase 10 [KO:K04440] [EC:2.7.11.24]
19730  Ralgds; ral guanine nucleotide dissociation stimulator [KO:K08732]
56044  Rala; v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene A (ras related) [KO:K07834]
64143  Ralb; v-ral simian leukemia viral oncogene B [KO:K07835]
19765  Ralbp1; ralA binding protein 1 [KO:K08773]
12540  Cdc42; cell division cycle 42 [KO:K04393]
21802  Tgfa; transforming growth factor alpha [KO:K08774]
13645  Egf; epidermal growth factor [KO:K04357]
13649  Egfr; epidermal growth factor receptor [KO:K04361] [EC:2.7.10.1]
13866  Erbb2; erb-b2 receptor tyrosine kinase 2 [KO:K05083] [EC:2.7.10.1]
56717  Mtor; mechanistic target of rapamycin kinase [KO:K07203] [EC:2.7.11.1]
58988  Rps6kb2; ribosomal protein S6 kinase, polypeptide 2 [KO:K04688] [EC:2.7.11.1]
72508  Rps6kb1; ribosomal protein S6 kinase, polypeptide 1 [KO:K04688] [EC:2.7.11.1]
16451  Jak1; Janus kinase 1 [KO:K11217] [EC:2.7.10.2]
20848  Stat3; signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 [KO:K04692]
20846  Stat1; signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 [KO:K11220]
22339  Vegfa; vascular endothelial growth factor A [KO:K05448]
12578  Cdkn2a; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 2A [KO:K06621]
12567  Cdk4; cyclin-dependent kinase 4 [KO:K02089] [EC:2.7.11.22]
12571  Cdk6; cyclin-dependent kinase 6 [KO:K02091] [EC:2.7.11.22]
12443  Ccnd1; cyclin D1 [KO:K04503]
19645  Rb1; RB transcriptional corepressor 1 [KO:K06618]
13555  E2f1; E2F transcription factor 1 [KO:K17454]
242705  E2f2; E2F transcription factor 2 [KO:K09389]
13557  E2f3; E2F transcription factor 3 [KO:K06620]
22059  Trp53; transformation related protein 53 [KO:K04451]
12575  Cdkn1a; cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1A (P21) [KO:K06625]
13197  Gadd45a; growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 alpha [KO:K04402]
17873  Gadd45b; growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 beta [KO:K04402]
23882  Gadd45g; growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible 45 gamma [KO:K04402]
12028  Bax; BCL2-associated X protein [KO:K02159]
12018  Bak1; BCL2-antagonist/killer 1 [KO:K14021]
107986  Ddb2; damage specific DNA binding protein 2 [KO:K10140]
27015  Polk; polymerase (DNA directed), kappa [KO:K03511] [EC:2.7.7.7]
21803  Tgfb1; transforming growth factor, beta 1 [KO:K13375]
21808  Tgfb2; transforming growth factor, beta 2 [KO:K13376]
21809  Tgfb3; transforming growth factor, beta 3 [KO:K13377]
21812  Tgfbr1; transforming growth factor, beta receptor I [KO:K04674] [EC:2.7.11.30]
21813  Tgfbr2; transforming growth factor, beta receptor II [KO:K04388] [EC:2.7.11.30]
17126  Smad2; SMAD family member 2 [KO:K04500]
17127  Smad3; SMAD family member 3 [KO:K04500]
17128  Smad4; SMAD family member 4 [KO:K04501]
12190  Brca2; breast cancer 2, early onset [KO:K08775]
19361  Rad51; RAD51 recombinase [KO:K04482]
18805  Pld1; phospholipase D1 [KO:K01115] [EC:3.1.4.4]
Compound
C00416  Phosphatidate
C05981  Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate
Reference
  Authors
Von Hoff D, Evans D, Hruban R (ed).
  Title
Pancreatic cancer
  Journal
Jones and Bartlett publishers (2005)
Reference
(Japanese)
  Authors
Niitsu Y, Yokota J (ed).
  Title
[Oncogenes and Tumor Suppressor Genes for Medical Oncologist] (In Japanese)
  Journal
Nankodo (1999)
Reference
  Authors
Bardeesy N, DePinho RA.
  Title
Pancreatic cancer biology and genetics.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 2:897-909 (2002)
DOI:10.1038/nrc949
Reference
  Authors
Bardeesy N, Sharpless NE, DePinho RA, Merlino G.
  Title
The genetics of pancreatic adenocarcinoma: a roadmap for a mouse model.
  Journal
Semin Cancer Biol 11:201-18 (2001)
DOI:10.1006/scbi.2000.0371
Reference
  Authors
Cowgill SM, Muscarella P.
  Title
The genetics of pancreatic cancer.
  Journal
Am J Surg 186:279-86 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0002-9610(03)00226-5
Reference
  Authors
Hezel AF, Kimmelman AC, Stanger BZ, Bardeesy N, Depinho RA.
  Title
Genetics and biology of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.
  Journal
Genes Dev 20:1218-49 (2006)
DOI:10.1101/gad.1415606
Reference
  Authors
Shields JM, Pruitt K, McFall A, Shaub A, Der CJ.
  Title
Understanding Ras: 'it ain't over 'til it's over'.
  Journal
Trends Cell Biol 10:147-54 (2000)
DOI:10.1016/S0962-8924(00)01740-2
Reference
  Authors
Holbro T, Civenni G, Hynes NE.
  Title
The ErbB receptors and their role in cancer progression.
  Journal
Exp Cell Res 284:99-110 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0014-4827(02)00099-X
Reference
  Authors
Marmor MD, Skaria KB, Yarden Y.
  Title
Signal transduction and oncogenesis by ErbB/HER receptors.
  Journal
Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys 58:903-13 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.ijrobp.2003.06.002
Reference
  Authors
DeArmond D, Brattain MG, Jessup JM, Kreisberg J, Malik S, Zhao S, Freeman JW.
  Title
Autocrine-mediated ErbB-2 kinase activation of STAT3 is required for growth factor independence of pancreatic cancer cell lines.
  Journal
Oncogene 22:7781-95 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1206966
Reference
  Authors
Wei D, Le X, Zheng L, Wang L, Frey JA, Gao AC, Peng Z, Huang S, Xiong HQ, Abbruzzese JL, Xie K.
  Title
Stat3 activation regulates the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and human pancreatic cancer angiogenesis and metastasis.
  Journal
Oncogene 22:319-29 (2003)
DOI:10.1038/sj.onc.1206122
Reference
  Authors
Toyonaga T, Nakano K, Nagano M, Zhao G, Yamaguchi K, Kuroki S, Eguchi T, Chijiiwa K, Tsuneyoshi M, Tanaka M.
  Title
Blockade of constitutively activated Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 pathway inhibits growth of human pancreatic cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 201:107-16 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0304-3835(03)00482-8
Reference
  Authors
Schmid RM.
  Title
Genetic basis of pancreatic cancer.
  Journal
Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol 16:421-33 (2002)
DOI:10.1053/bega.2002.0316
Reference
  Authors
Elliott RL, Blobe GC.
  Title
Role of transforming growth factor Beta in human cancer.
  Journal
J Clin Oncol 23:2078-93 (2005)
DOI:10.1200/JCO.2005.02.047
Reference
  Authors
Rudkin TM, Foulkes WD.
  Title
BRCA2: breaks, mistakes and failed separations.
  Journal
Trends Mol Med 11:145-8 (2005)
DOI:10.1016/j.molmed.2005.02.003
Reference
  Authors
Venkitaraman AR.
  Title
Functions of BRCA1 and BRCA2 in the biological response to DNA damage.
  Journal
J Cell Sci 114:3591-8 (2001)
Reference
  Authors
Chang Z, Li Z, Wang X, Kang Y, Yuan Y, Niu J, Wang H, Chatterjee D, Fleming JB, Li M, Abbruzzese JL, Chiao PJ
  Title
Deciphering the mechanisms of tumorigenesis in human pancreatic ductal epithelial cells.
  Journal
Clin Cancer Res 19:549-59 (2013)
DOI:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-0032
KO pathway
ko05212   

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