KEGG   PATHWAY: psp00920Help
psp00920                    Pathway                                

Sulfur metabolism - Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola 1448A
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
psp00920  Sulfur metabolism

Ortholog table
psp_M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:psp00920]
Other DBs
BSID: 25763
GO: 0006790
Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. phaseolicola 1448A [GN:psp]
PSPPH_3304  sulfate ABC transporter, periplasmic sulfate-binding protein [KO:K02048]
PSPPH_0089  sbp; sulfate-binding protein [KO:K02048]
PSPPH_0088  cysT; sulfate ABC transporter, permease protein CysT [KO:K02046]
PSPPH_0087  cysW; sulfate ABC transporter, permease protein CysW [KO:K02047]
PSPPH_0086  Sulfate/thiosulfate import ATP-binding protein cysA(Sulfate-transporting ATPase) [KO:K02045] [EC:]
PSPPH_4908  tauA; taurine ABC transporter, periplasmic binding protein [KO:K15551]
PSPPH_4910  taurine ABC transporter, permease protein [KO:K15552]
PSPPH_4909  cmpC; taurine ABC transporter, ATP-binding protein [KO:K10831] [EC:]
PSPPH_1752  dioxygenase, TauD/TfdA family [KO:K03119] [EC:]
PSPPH_0320  dioxygenase, TauD/TfdA family [KO:K03119] [EC:]
PSPPH_2674  ABC transporter, periplasmic substrate-binding protein [KO:K15553]
PSPPH_3614  ABC transporter, periplasmic substrate-binding protein, aliphatic sulfonates family [KO:K15553]
PSPPH_2975  ABC transporter, periplasmic substrate-binding protein, aliphatic sulfonates family [KO:K15553]
PSPPH_4905  sulfonate ABC transporter, periplasmic sulfonate-binding protein SsuA [KO:K15553]
PSPPH_4855  sulfonate ABC transporter, periplasmic sulfonate-binding protein, putative [KO:K15553]
PSPPH_4904  ssuC; aliphatic sulfonates ABC transporter, permease protein [KO:K15554]
PSPPH_3609  sulfonate ABC transporter, permease protein, putative [KO:K15554]
PSPPH_2673  ABC transporter, permease protein [KO:K15554]
PSPPH_4903  aliphatic sulfonates ABC transporter, ATP-binding protein [KO:K15555] [EC:3.6.3.-]
PSPPH_3608  ABC transporter ATP-binding subunit [KO:K15555] [EC:3.6.3.-]
PSPPH_2672  nrtC; ABC transporter, ATP-binding protein [KO:K15555] [EC:3.6.3.-]
PSPPH_3610  FMNH2-dependent methanesulfonate sulfonatase [KO:K04091] [EC:]
PSPPH_3167  alkanesulfonate monooxygenase family protein [KO:K04091] [EC:]
PSPPH_4132  cysNC; sulfate adenylytransferase, large subunit/adenylylsulfate kinase [KO:K00955] [EC:]
PSPPH_4133  cysD; sulfate adenylyltransferase, small subunit [KO:K00957] [EC:]
PSPPH_4301  cysC1; adenylylsulfate kinase [KO:K00860] [EC:]
PSPPH_5179  cysC2; adenylylsulfate kinase [KO:K00860] [EC:]
PSPPH_0144  cysQ; 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase [KO:K01082] [EC:]
PSPPH_2049  adenylylsulfate reductase, thioredoxin dependent [KO:K00390] [EC:]
PSPPH_1839  cycA; cytochrome c2 [KO:K08738]
PSPPH_4268  sulfite reductase (NADPH) flavoprotein, alpha-component, putative [KO:K00380] [EC:]
PSPPH_2618  cysI; sulfite reductase (NADPH) hemoprotein, beta-component [KO:K00381] [EC:]
PSPPH_0084  pyridine nucleotide-disulfide oxidoreductase [KO:K17218] [EC:]
PSPPH_4787  rhodanese domain protein [KO:K01011] [EC:]
PSPPH_0630  glpE; thiosulfate sulfurtransferase [KO:K02439] [EC:]
PSPPH_0344  serine O-acetyltransferase, putative [KO:K00640] [EC:]
PSPPH_1714  cysE2; serine acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
PSPPH_1307  cysE1; serine O-acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
PSPPH_1566  cysK; cysteine synthase A [KO:K01738] [EC:]
PSPPH_3718  cysM; cysteine synthase B [KO:K12339] [EC:]
PSPPH_1663  metZ; O-succinylhomoserine sulfhydrylase [KO:K10764] [EC:2.5.1.-]
PSPPH_2909  bacterial luciferase family protein [KO:K17228] [EC:]
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
Fauque GD, Barton LL
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
Pott AS, Dahl C
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
KO pathway

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