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see00920                    Pathway                                

Sulfur metabolism - Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport SL254
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
see00920  Sulfur metabolism

Ortholog table
see_M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:see00920]
Other DBs
BSID: 71766
GO: 0006790
Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Newport SL254 [GN:see]
SNSL254_A2638  cysP; sulfate/thiosulfate ABC transporter, periplasmic sulfate/thiosulfate-binding protein [KO:K02048]
SNSL254_A4392  sulfate-binding protein [KO:K02048]
SNSL254_A2637  cysT; sulfate ABC transporter, permease protein CysT [KO:K02046]
SNSL254_A2636  cysW; sulfate ABC transporter, permease protein CysW [KO:K02047]
SNSL254_A2635  cysA; sulfate/thiosulfate ABC transporter, ATP-binding protein [KO:K02045] [EC:]
SNSL254_A3140  sulfate adenylyltransferase subunit 1 [KO:K00956] [EC:]
SNSL254_A3141  cysD; sulfate adenylyltransferase, subunit 2 [KO:K00957] [EC:]
SNSL254_A3139  cysC; adenylylsulfate kinase [KO:K00860] [EC:]
SNSL254_A4768  cysQ; 3'(2'),5'-bisphosphate nucleotidase [KO:K01082] [EC:]
SNSL254_A3157  cysH; phosphoadenosine phosphosulfate reductase [KO:K00390] [EC:]
SNSL254_A3159  cysJ; sulfite reductase [NADPH] flavoprotein, alpha-component [KO:K00380] [EC:]
SNSL254_A3158  cysI; sulfite reductase (NADPH) hemoprotein, beta-component [KO:K00381] [EC:]
SNSL254_A2748  asrA; sulfite reductase, subunit A [KO:K16950]
SNSL254_A2749  asrB; sulfite reductase, subunit B [KO:K16951]
SNSL254_A2750  asrC; sulfite reductase, subunit C [KO:K00385]
SNSL254_A1496  tetrathionate reductase complex, subunit A [KO:K08357]
SNSL254_A1498  tetrathionate reductase subunit B [KO:K08358]
SNSL254_A1497  tetrathionate reductase complex, subunit C [KO:K08359]
SNSL254_A2242  thiosulfate reductase [KO:K08352] [EC:]
SNSL254_A2241  4Fe-4S binding domain protein [KO:K08353]
SNSL254_A2240  thiosulfate reductase cytochrome B subunit [KO:K08354]
SNSL254_A2728  conserved hypothetical protein [KO:K01011] [EC:]
SNSL254_A3792  thiosulfate sulfurtransferase GlpE [KO:K02439] [EC:]
SNSL254_A3979  cysE; serine O-acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
SNSL254_A2623  cysK; cysteine synthase A [KO:K01738] [EC:]
SNSL254_A0507  pyridoxal-5'-phosphate-dependent enzyme, beta subunit [KO:K01738] [EC:]
SNSL254_A2634  cysM; cysteine synthase B [KO:K12339] [EC:]
SNSL254_A4518  metA; homoserine O-succinyltransferase [KO:K00651] [EC:]
SNSL254_A4431  metB; O-succinylhomoserine (thiol)-lyase [KO:K01739] [EC:]
SNSL254_A2725  anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain a [KO:K07306] [EC:]
SNSL254_A0998  anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain a [KO:K07306] [EC:]
SNSL254_A4651  anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase chain a [KO:K07306] [EC:]
SNSL254_A1608  dmsB_2; dimethylsulfoxide reductase, B subunit [KO:K07307]
SNSL254_A4652  dmsB; dimethylsulfoxide reductase, chain B [KO:K07307]
SNSL254_A0999  dmsB_2; dimethylsulfoxide reductase, B subunit [KO:K07307]
SNSL254_A2724  dmsB; dimethylsulfoxide reductase, chain B [KO:K07307]
SNSL254_A1000  dmsC; dmso reductase anchor subunit [KO:K07308]
SNSL254_A2723  putative dimethylsulfoxide reductase [KO:K07308]
SNSL254_A4653  dmsC; dmso reductase anchor subunit [KO:K07308]
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
Fauque GD, Barton LL
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
Pott AS, Dahl C
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
KO pathway

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