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ses00920                    Pathway                                

Sulfur metabolism - Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway map
ses00920  Sulfur metabolism

Ortholog table
ses_M00176  Assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfate => H2S [PATH:ses00920]
Other DBs
BSID: 61509
GO: 0006790
Salmonella enterica subsp. arizonae [GN:ses]
SARI_03580  hypothetical protein [KO:K02048]
SARI_00444  hypothetical protein [KO:K02048]
SARI_00445  hypothetical protein [KO:K02046]
SARI_00446  hypothetical protein [KO:K02047]
SARI_00447  hypothetical protein [KO:K02045] [EC:]
SARI_00022  hypothetical protein [KO:K00956] [EC:]
SARI_00021  hypothetical protein [KO:K00957] [EC:]
SARI_00023  hypothetical protein [KO:K00860] [EC:]
SARI_03226  hypothetical protein [KO:K01082] [EC:]
SARI_00016  hypothetical protein [KO:K00390] [EC:]
SARI_00014  hypothetical protein [KO:K00380] [EC:]
SARI_00015  hypothetical protein [KO:K00381] [EC:]
SARI_00329  hypothetical protein [KO:K16950]
SARI_00328  hypothetical protein [KO:K16951]
SARI_00327  hypothetical protein [KO:K00385]
SARI_04622  hypothetical protein [KO:K16936 K16937] [EC:]
SARI_01599  hypothetical protein [KO:K08357]
SARI_01597  hypothetical protein [KO:K08358]
SARI_01598  hypothetical protein [KO:K08359]
SARI_00822  hypothetical protein [KO:K08352] [EC:]
SARI_00823  hypothetical protein [KO:K08353]
SARI_00824  hypothetical protein [KO:K08354]
SARI_00344  hypothetical protein [KO:K01011] [EC:]
SARI_04096  hypothetical protein [KO:K02439] [EC:]
SARI_03942  hypothetical protein [KO:K00640] [EC:]
SARI_02475  hypothetical protein [KO:K01738] [EC:]
SARI_00458  hypothetical protein [KO:K01738] [EC:]
SARI_00448  hypothetical protein [KO:K12339] [EC:]
SARI_03474  hypothetical protein [KO:K00651] [EC:]
SARI_03556  hypothetical protein [KO:K01739] [EC:]
SARI_00347  hypothetical protein [KO:K07306] [EC:]
SARI_03342  hypothetical protein [KO:K07306] [EC:]
SARI_02000  hypothetical protein [KO:K07306] [EC:]
SARI_01432  hypothetical protein [KO:K07307]
SARI_03341  hypothetical protein [KO:K07307]
SARI_01999  hypothetical protein [KO:K07307]
SARI_00348  hypothetical protein [KO:K07307]
SARI_00349  hypothetical protein [KO:K07308]
SARI_01998  hypothetical protein [KO:K07308]
SARI_03339  hypothetical protein [KO:K07308]
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
Fauque GD, Barton LL
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
Pott AS, Dahl C
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
KO pathway

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