KEGG   PATHWAY: ypk00920Help
ypk00920                    Pathway                                

Sulfur metabolism - Yersinia pestis KIM10+ (biovar Mediaevalis)
Sulfur is an essential element for life and the metabolism of organic sulfur compounds plays an important role in the global sulfur cycle. Sulfur occurs in various oxidation states ranging from +6 in sulfate to -2 in sulfide (H2S). Sulfate reduction can occur in both an energy consuming assimilatory pathway and an energy producing dissimilatory pathway. The assimilatory pathway, which is found in a wide range of organisms, produces reduced sulfur compounds for the biosynthesis of S-containing amino acids and does not lead to direct excretion of sulfide. In the dissimilatory pathway, which is restricted to obligatory anaerobic bacterial and archaeal lineages, sulfate (or sulfur) is the terminal electron acceptor of the respiratory chain producing large quantities of inorganic sulfide. Both pathways start from the activation of sulfate by reaction with ATP to form adenylyl sulfate (APS). In the assimilatory pathway [MD:M00176] APS is converted to 3'-phosphoadenylyl sulfate (PAPS) and then reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the assimilatory sulfite reductase. In the dissimilatory pathway [MD:M00596] APS is directly reduced to sulfite, and sulfite is further reduced to sulfide by the dissimilatory sulfite reductase. The capacity for oxidation of sulfur is quite widespread among bacteria and archaea, comprising phototrophs and chemolithoautotrophs. The SOX (sulfur-oxidation) system [MD:M00595] is a well-known sulfur oxidation pathway and is found in both photosynthetic and non-photosynthetic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria. Green sulfur bacteria and purple sulfur bacteria carry out anoxygenic photosynthesis with reduced sulfur compounds such as sulfide and elemental sulfur, as well as thiosulfate (in some species with the SOX system), as the electron donor for photoautotrophic growth. In some chemolithoautotrophic sulfur oxidizers (such as Thiobacillus denitrificans), it has been suggested that dissimilatory sulfur reduction enzymes operate in the reverse direction, forming a sulfur oxidation pathway from sulfite to APS and then to sulfate.
Metabolism; Energy metabolism
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Pathway map
ypk00920  Sulfur metabolism

Ortholog table
Other DBs
BSID: 9214
GO: 0006790
Yersinia pestis KIM10+ (biovar Mediaevalis) [GN:ypk]
y0058  sbp; periplasmic sulfate-binding protein of sulfate/thiosulfate ABC transporter [KO:K02048]
y1466  cysP; thiosulfate binding periplasmic protein of sulfate/thiosulfate ABC transporter [KO:K02048]
y1467  cysU; inner membrane permease T of sulfate/thiosulfate ABC transporter [KO:K02046]
y1468  cysW; sulfate/thiosulfate permease [KO:K02047]
y1469  cysA; ATP-binding component of sulfate permease A protein [KO:K02045] [EC:]
y3963  tauA; taurine-binding periplasmic protein of taurine ABC transport system [KO:K15551]
y3965  tauC; taurine ABC transport system inner membrane permease protein [KO:K15552]
y3964  tauB; taurine ATP-binding component of ABC transport system [KO:K10831] [EC:]
y3966  tauD; taurine dioxygenase [KO:K03119] [EC:]
y0245  ssuA; solute-binding periplasmic protein of aliphatic sulfonates, ABC transporter [KO:K15553]
y0243  ssuC; putative transport system permease protein of aliphatic sulfonates ABC transporter [KO:K15554]
y0242  ssuB; putative ATP-binding component of a transport system of aliphatic sulfonates ABC transporter [KO:K15555] [EC:3.6.3.-]
y0244  hypothetical protein [KO:K04091] [EC:]
y0246  hypothetical protein [KO:K00299] [EC:]
y0824  cysN; ATP-sulfurylase, subunit 1 [KO:K00956] [EC:]
y0823  cysD; ATP-sulfurylase, subunit 2 [KO:K00957] [EC:]
y0825  cysC; adenosine 5'-phosphosulfate kinase [KO:K00860] [EC:]
y0654  cysQ; sulfite synthesis pathway protein [KO:K01082] [EC:]
y0818  cysJ; sulfite reductase (NADPH), flavoprotein beta subunit [KO:K00380] [EC:]
y0819  cysI; sulfite reductase, alpha subunit [KO:K00381] [EC:]
y2995  sseA; putative thiosulfate sulfurtransferase [KO:K01011] [EC:]
y3899  glpE; protein of glp regulon [KO:K02439] [EC:]
y0072  cysE; serine acetyltransferase [KO:K00640] [EC:]
y1037  putative cysteine synthase [KO:K01738] [EC:]
y1489  cysK; cysteine synthase A, O-acetylserine sulfhydrolase A [KO:K01738] [EC:]
y4039  cysK; cysteine synthase [KO:K01738] [EC:]
y1470  cysM; cysteine synthase B, O-acetylserine sulfhydrolase B [KO:K12339] [EC:]
y0013  metA; homoserine transsuccinylase [KO:K00651] [EC:]
y0864  dmsA; anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit A [KO:K07306] [EC:]
y1519  putative oxidoreductase, major subunit [KO:K07306] [EC:]
y0865  dmsB; anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit B [KO:K07307]
y1518  dmsB; anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit B [KO:K07307]
y0866  dmsC; anaerobic dimethyl sulfoxide reductase subunit C [KO:K07308]
y1517  putative membrane anchor protein for oxidoreductase [KO:K07308]
C00033  Acetate
C00042  Succinate
C00053  3'-Phosphoadenylyl sulfate
C00054  Adenosine 3',5'-bisphosphate
C00059  Sulfate
C00065  L-Serine
C00084  Acetaldehyde
C00087  Sulfur
C00094  Sulfite
C00097  L-Cysteine
C00155  L-Homocysteine
C00224  Adenylyl sulfate
C00245  Taurine
C00263  L-Homoserine
C00283  Hydrogen sulfide
C00320  Thiosulfate
C00409  Methanethiol
C00580  Dimethyl sulfide
C00979  O-Acetyl-L-serine
C01118  O-Succinyl-L-homoserine
C01861  Trithionate
C02084  Tetrathionate
C03920  2-(Methylthio)ethanesulfonate
C04022  S,S-Dimethyl-beta-propiothetin
C08276  3-(Methylthio)propanoate
C11142  Dimethyl sulfone
C11143  Dimethyl sulfoxide
C11145  Methanesulfonic acid
C15521  Alkanesulfonate
C17267  S-Sulfanylglutathione
C19692  Polysulfide
C20870  3-(Methylthio)propanoyl-CoA
C20955  3-(Methylthio)acryloyl-CoA
Grein F, Ramos AR, Venceslau SS, Pereira IA
Unifying concepts in anaerobic respiration: Insights from dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.
Biochim Biophys Acta 1827:145-60 (2013)
Fauque GD, Barton LL
Hemoproteins in dissimilatory sulfate- and sulfur-reducing prokaryotes.
Adv Microb Physiol 60:1-90 (2012)
Sakurai H, Ogawa T, Shiga M, Inoue K
Inorganic sulfur oxidizing system in green sulfur bacteria.
Photosynth Res 104:163-76 (2010)
Falkenby LG, Szymanska M, Holkenbrink C, Habicht KS, Andersen JS, Miller M, Frigaard NU
Quantitative proteomics of Chlorobaculum tepidum: insights into the sulfur metabolism of a phototrophic green sulfur bacterium.
FEMS Microbiol Lett 323:142-50 (2011)
Gregersen LH, Bryant DA, Frigaard NU
Mechanisms and evolution of oxidative sulfur metabolism in green sulfur bacteria.
Front Microbiol 2:116 (2011)
Beller HR, Chain PS, Letain TE, Chakicherla A, Larimer FW, Richardson PM, Coleman MA, Wood AP, Kelly DP.
The genome sequence of the obligately chemolithoautotrophic, facultatively anaerobic bacterium Thiobacillus denitrificans.
J Bacteriol 188:1473-88 (2006)
Pott AS, Dahl C
Sirohaem sulfite reductase and other proteins encoded by genes at the dsr locus of Chromatium vinosum are involved in the oxidation of intracellular sulfur.
Microbiology 144 ( Pt 7):1881-94 (1998)
Frigaard NU, Dahl C
Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria.
Adv Microb Physiol 54:103-200 (2009)
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