KEGG image  Carbohydrates in Viral and Bacterial Infections

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Viral infection

Glycan receptor Viral attachment protein Known viral genes Disease
Gene Virus Reference
Sialic acid-containing receptor Siaα2,3Gal linkages G02213 (GD1a) Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase K19247 [vg:1489776] Sendai virus 15313478 16575518
[vg:912270] Newcastle disease virus
VP1 K19248 [vg:10987416] Merkel Cell polyomavirus 24983512
[vg:22619581] Murine polyomavirus 12941687
VP4 K19249 [sp:VP4_ROTP3] Porcine CRW-8 rotavirus 19109595
Fibre knob Human adenovirus serotype 37 25263223 Adenovirus infection (H00371)
Epidemic keratoconjunctivitis (H01320)
G00110 (GM1) Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase K19247 [vg:912270] Newcastle disease virus 15313478
VP1 K19248 [vg:1489530] Simian virus 40 18353982
VP4 K19249 [sp:VP4_ROTHW] Human rotavirus strain WA 19109595 Rotaviral enteritis (H00975)
G02267 (GM2) Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase K19247 [vg:912270] Newcastle disease virus 15313478
Sigma 1 [sp:SIGM1_REOVL] Mammalian orthoreovirus 1 23236285 25263223
G00108 (GM3) Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase K19247 [vg:912270] Newcastle disease virus 15313478
VP4 K19249 [vg:7011406] Rhesus rotavirus 21268193
Sigma 1 K19250 [vg:8437025] Mammalian orthoreovirus 3 25263223
G00436 (3SL) Hemagglutinin K19251 Influenza A and B (avian) 25263223 Influenza (H00398)
VP1 K19248 [vg:1494437] B-Lymphotropic Polyomavirus 24983512
[vg:22619581] murine polyomavirus
G00253 (3SLN) VP1 K19248 [vg:10987416] Merkel Cell polyomavirus 24983512
[vg:1494437] B-Lymphotropic Polyomavirus
hemagglutinin-neuraminidase K19247 [vg:935266] Human parainfluenza virus type 1 11312330 Parainfluenza infections (H00400)
[vg:911961] Human parainfluenza virus type 3
G05987 Capsid protein K19252 [vg:2957136] Adeno-associated virus -5 24371066
G01256 Capsid protein K19252 [vg:1450374] Adeno-associated virus -1 24371066
Adeno-associated virus -6
Siaα2,3Galβ1,3GalNAc Unknown Enterovirus 70 15890948 Acute hemorrhagic conjunctivitis (H01421)
G11204 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase K19247 [vg:911961] Human parainfluenza virus type 3 11312330 Parainfluenza infections (H00400)
Neu5,9Ac2α2,3Gal- S glycoprotein K19254 [vg:921689] Bovine coronavirus 8317096
(Neu5Acα2,8) Neu5Acα2,3Gal linkages G00116 (GT1b) Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase K19247 [vg:1489776] Sendai virus 15313478 16575518
[vg:912270] Newcastle disease virus
VP1 K19248 [vg:1489515] BK polyomavirus 16415013
[vg:10987416] Merkel Cell polyomavirus 19605473
[vg:22619581] Murine polyomavirus 12941687
G00117(GQ1b) Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase K19247 [vg:1489776] Sendai virus 15313478
G00115 (GD1b) Hemagglutinin-neuraminidase K19247 [vg:912270] Newcastle disease virus 15313478
VP1 K19248 [vg:1489515] BK polyomavirus 16415013
G00113 (GD3) VP1 K19248 [vg:1489515] BK polyomavirus 16415013 24130487
Neu5Acα2,6Gal linkages G00265 Hemagglutinin K19251 Influenza A and B (human) 25263223 Influenza (H00398)
Sigma 1 K19250 [vg:8437025] Mammalian orthoreovirus 3
G11147 (LSTc) VP1 K19248 [vg:1489518] JC polyomavirus 20951965 Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (H00370)
G02836 Capsid protein K19252 [vg:1446389] Adeno-associated virus -4 24371066
G00255 hemagglutinin-neuraminidase K19247 [vg:911961] Human parainfluenza virus type 3 11312330 Parainfluenza infections (H00400)
Neu5,9Ac2α2,6Gal- Hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion K19253 [vg:3077359] Influenza C 9817207
S glycoprotein K19254 [vg:2648208] Human coronavirus OC43 8317096
Neu5Acα2,8Gal linkage G13068 Sigma 1 K19250 [vg:8437025] Mammalian orthoreovirus 3 25263223
Others Neu5,9Ac2-containing glycan Hemagglutinin-esterase K19253 [vg:3707767] Bovine torovirus 21917445
[sp:HEMA_PTV10] Porcine torovirus
Glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-containg receptor Heparan sulfate (HS) gB K19255 [vg:2703455] Herpes simplex 1 15056211 Herpes simplex virus infection (H00365)
[vg:1487312] Herpes simplex 2
[vg:3077424] Human herpesvirus 5 22440964 Cytomegalovirus infection (H00368)
gC K19256 [vg:2703410] Herpes simplex 1 15056211 Herpes simplex virus infection (H00365)
[vg:1487331] Herpes simplex 2
gM K19257 [vg:3077534] Human herpesvirus 5 22440964 Cytomegalovirus infection (H00368)
gp120 V3 loop K19287 [vg:155971] Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 9557643 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (H00406)
Tat K19258 [vg:155871] Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 19661268 Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (H00406)
gp46 K19259 [vg:1491939] Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 12941902
E protein [vg:5075725 1494449] Dengue virus 11878919 11050058 Dengue (H00381)
[vg:1489713] Japanese encephalitis virus 14981764 Mosquito-borne viral encephalitis (H00379)
envelope glycoprotein E2 Hepatitis C virus 22660965 Hepatitis C virus infection (H00413)
L1 K19260 Human papillomavirus type 11 10026203
[vg:1489082] Human papillomavirus type 16 17640876
VP3 Foot-and -mouth disease type O 9927414
Fusion protein K19261 [vg:2799939] Human metapneumovirus 22238303 Human metapneumovirus infection (H01063)
Fibre protein K19262 [vg:2652999] Adenovirus serotype 2 10704346
Adenovirus serotype 5
A27L K19263 [vg:3707680] Vaccinia virus 9445060
E2 protein K19288 [vg:1502155] Sindbis virus 20300181
3-O-sulfated HS gD K19264 [vg:2703406] Herpes simplex 1 20004926 Herpes simplex virus infection (H00365)
[vg:1487358] Herpes simplex 2
6-O- and N-sulfated HS Capsid protein K19252 [vg:4192017] Adeno-associated virus -2 24371066
2-O- and N-sulfated heparin Capsid protein K19252 [vg:1403995] Adeno-associated virus -3
N-sulfated heparin Capsid protein Adeno-associated virus -6 24371066
Acetylated, 2/6-O-sulfated heparin Capsid protein Adeno-associated virus -13 24371066
Chondroitin sulfate D8L [vg:3707569] Vaccinia virus 10482629
Neutral glycan-containg receptor histo–blood group antigen GalNAca1-3Gala1-2Fuc (A-type HBGA) VP4 HAL1166 25263223
A- and H-type HBGA VP1 [vg:1491972] Norwalk virus 18599458
G00094 (P antigen) Unknown parvovirus B19 24889255

Bacterial infection

Glycan receptor Bacterial toxin Reference Disease
G00093 (Gb3) Shiga toxin K11007 11140771 Shigellosis (H00299)
G02213 (GD1a) Pertussis toxin K11023 K11024 K11025 K11026 K11027 11140771 Pertussis (H00319)
Botulinum toxin A, B, F and E K06011 9712688 Botulism (H00339)
G00115 (GD1b) Tetanus toxin K08644 7527546 10722735
Botulinum toxin C and F K06011 16115873
G00110 (GM1) Cholera toxin / Heat labile enterotoxin K10929 9753553 1741035 Cholera (H00110)
G00131 (GM1a) Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin 22847002
G02267 (GM2) Clostridium perfringens delta toxin 19018299
G00108 (GM3) Enterotoxin type B K11040 7552730
G00116 (GT1b) Botulinum toxin A, B, C, E and F K06011 18704164 9712688 Botulism (H00339)
Tetanus toxin K08644 7527546 10722735
G00117(GQ1b) Botulinum toxin E K06011 11140771 3778479 Botulism (H00339)
Tetanus toxin K08644 7527546 10722735
G00053 Clostridium difficile toxin A K11063 3115180
G00265 (6SL) Botulinum toxin B K06011 10932256 Botulism (H00339)
G00242 (SLex) Superantigen-like protein K11042 17996251
G13071 Subtilase cytotoxin K19298 18971931


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Last updated: April 15, 2016