KEGG   DISEASE: Squamous cell carcinomaHelp
Entry
H00040                      Disease                                

Name
Squamous cell carcinoma
Description
Non-melanoma skin cancer, i.e. basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are the most frequent tumors and their number is still increasing world- wide. Approximately 200000 cases of SCC develop per year, causing about 2000 deaths. Unlike BCCs, which have no known precursor lesions, SCCs can emerge from actinic keratoses. SCC in anogenital regions can be caused by oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) strains. As with BCC, risk for development of SCC is strongly influenced by the nature and dose of UV radiation and genetic backgrounds that regulate that interaction. Mutations in TP53 have been described in actinic keratoses, in situ SCC, and invasive SCC with UV signature lesions common, and a reported mutation rate as high as 45%. As with TP53, UV-induced mutations in HRAS and KRAS have also been characterized in both actinic keratoses and SCC. The reported frequency of RAS mutations in SCCs ranges from approximately 10% to almost 50%. Several recent studies have also reported mutations of p16 in up to 24% of SCCs.
Category
Cancer
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cancers
  Skin cancers
   H00040  Squamous cell carcinoma
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 02 Neoplasms
  Malignant neoplasms, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
   Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of specified sites, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
    Malignant neoplasms of skin
     2C31  Squamous cell carcinoma of skin
      H00040  Squamous cell carcinoma
BRITE hierarchy
Gene
p53 (mutation) [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
p16/INK4A (mutation) [HSA:1029] [KO:K06621]
H-ras (mutation) [HSA:3265] [KO:K02833]
K-ras (mutation) [HSA:3845] [KO:K07827]
Carcinogen
Solar radiation
Ciclosporin [DR:D00184]
*Benzo[a]pyrene [CPD:C07535]
*Chimney sweeping
*Mineral oils, untreated and mildly treated
*: Although this is a risk factor for skin cancer in general, the strength of association with different histological tumor types is not well understood.
Pathogen
Human papillomavirus types 8, 18, 5 [GN:T40089]
Drug
Bleomycin sulfate [DR:D02177]
Cetuximab [DR:D03455]
Nivolumab [DR:D10316]
Pembrolizumab [DR:D10574]
Hydroxyurea [DR:D00341]
Cemiplimab [DR:D11108]
Comment
ICD-O: 8070/3, Tumor type: squamous cell carcinoma
Other DBs
ICD-11: 2C31
ICD-10: C44
MeSH: D002294
Reference
PMID:15468170 (description, gene, carcinogen, tumor type)
  Authors
Tsai KY, Tsao H.
  Title
The genetics of skin cancer.
  Journal
Am J Med Genet C Semin Med Genet 131C:82-92 (2004)
DOI:10.1002/ajmg.c.30037
Reference
  Authors
Tsao H.
  Title
Genetics of nonmelanoma skin cancer.
  Journal
Arch Dermatol 137:1486-92 (2001)
Reference
PMID:11078916 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Biliris KA, Koumantakis E, Dokianakis DN, Sourvinos G, Spandidos DA
  Title
Human papillomavirus infection of non-melanoma skin cancers in immunocompetent hosts.
  Journal
Cancer Lett 161:83-8 (2000)
DOI:10.1016/S0304-3835(00)00596-6
Reference
PMID:16652084 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Tiu J, Li H, Rassekh C, van der Sloot P, Kovach R, Zhang P.
  Title
Molecular basis of posttransplant squamous cell carcinoma: the potential role of cyclosporine a in carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Laryngoscope 116:762-9 (2006)
DOI:10.1097/01.mlg.0000205170.24517.28
Reference
PMID:15660110 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Luch A.
  Title
Nature and nurture - lessons from chemical carcinogenesis.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 5:113-25 (2005)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1546
Reference
PMID:17530489 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Abnet CC.
  Title
Carcinogenic food contaminants.
  Journal
Cancer Invest 25:189-96 (2007)
DOI:10.1080/07357900701208733
Reference
PMID:9498904 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Boffetta P, Jourenkova N, Gustavsson P.
  Title
Cancer risk from occupational and environmental exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.
  Journal
Cancer Causes Control 8:444-72 (1997)
Reference
PMID:9498901 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Tolbert PE.
  Title
Oils and cancer.
  Journal
Cancer Causes Control 8:386-405 (1997)
Reference
PMID:16307669 (marker)
  Authors
Takeuchi Y, Tamura A, Kamiya M, Fukuda T, Ishikawa O.
  Title
Immunohistochemical analyses of p63 expression in cutaneous tumours.
  Journal
Br J Dermatol 153:1230-2 (2005)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2005.06952.x
Reference
PMID:15268709 (marker)
  Authors
Park HR, Min SK, Cho HD, Kim KH, Shin HS, Park YE.
  Title
Expression profiles of p63, p53, survivin, and hTERT in skin tumors.
  Journal
J Cutan Pathol 31:544-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1111/j.0303-6987.2004.00228.x

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