KEGG   DISEASE: Nasopharyngeal cancerHelp
Entry
H00054                      Disease                                

Name
Nasopharyngeal cancer
Description
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a rare disease in most parts of the world, with an age-standardised annual incidence of less than 1 per 100000. However, in Southern China, parts of Southeast Asia and the Mediterranean basin, NPC is an endemic disease with an incidence of 10-30 per 100000. Genome-wide studies have unravelled multiple chromosomal abnormalities with involvement of specific oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes. Alterations of genes such as Ras association domain family 1A (RASSF1A), p16/INK4A, p14/ARF suggest that multiple cellular pathways were dysregulated in the NPC cells. Studies on the precancerous lesions revealed early genetic changes and a critical role of Epstein- Barr virus (EBV) latent infection in the development of this cancer.
Category
Cancer
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cancers
  Head and neck cancers
   H00054  Nasopharyngeal cancer
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 02 Neoplasms
  Malignant neoplasms, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
   Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of specified sites, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
    Malignant neoplasms of lip, oral cavity or pharynx
     2B6B  Malignant neoplasms of nasopharynx
      H00054  Nasopharyngeal cancer
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
hsa05203  Viral carcinogenesis
hsa05169  Epstein-Barr virus infection
Network
N00223  EBV EBNA1 to host-cell-protein inhibition
N00224  EBV EBNALP binding to host-cell-protein
N00225  EBV EBNA2 binding to host-cell-protein
N00226  EBV EBNA3A/3B to host-cell-protein inhibition
N00262  EBV EBNA3C to host-cell-protein inhibition
N00263  EBV EBNA3C to host-cell-protein activation
N00264  EBV EBNA3C binding to host-cell-protein
N00265  EBV LMP1 to host-cell-protein activation
N00266  EBV LMP2 to host-cell-protein inhibition
Gene
RASSF1 (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:11186] [KO:K09850]
p16/INK4A (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:1029] [KO:K06621]
Bcl-2 (overexpression) [HSA:596] [KO:K02161]
EDNRB (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:1910] [KO:K04198]
TSLC1 (promoter hypermethylation) [HSA:23705] [KO:K06781]
E-cadherin (decreased expression) [HSA:999] [KO:K05689]
Carcinogen
Formaldehyde [CPD:C00067]
Salted fish (Chinese-style)
Tobacco smoking and tobacco smoke
Wood dust
Pathogen
Human herpesvirus 4 (Epstein-Barr virus) [GN:T40079]
Comment
ICD-O: 8072/3, Tumor type: Non-keratinizing carcinoma
ICD-O: 8071/3, Tumor type: Keratinizing squamous cell carcinoma
ICD-O: 8083/3, Tumor type: Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma
Other DBs
ICD-11: 2B6B
ICD-10: C11
MeSH: D009303
Reference
PMID:15958470 (description, carcinogen)
  Authors
Chan AT
  Title
Head and neck cancer: treatment of nasopharyngeal cancer.
  Journal
Ann Oncol 16 Suppl 2:ii265-8 (2005)
DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdi732
Reference
PMID:12450731 (description, gene, carcinogen)
  Authors
Lo KW, Huang DP.
  Title
Genetic and epigenetic changes in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  Journal
Semin Cancer Biol 12:451-62 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S1044579X02000883
Reference
PMID:15510157 (gene, tumor type)
  Authors
Young LS, Rickinson AB.
  Title
Epstein-Barr virus: 40 years on.
  Journal
Nat Rev Cancer 4:757-68 (2004)
DOI:10.1038/nrc1452
Reference
PMID:15760280 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Schottenfeld D, Beebe-Dimmer JL.
  Title
Advances in cancer epidemiology: understanding causal mechanisms and the evidence for implementing interventions.
  Journal
Annu Rev Public Health 26:37-60 (2005)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.26.021304.144402
Reference
PMID:17033133 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Binetti R, Costamagna FM, Marcello I.
  Title
Development of carcinogenicity classifications and evaluations: the case of formaldehyde.
  Journal
Ann Ist Super Sanita 42:132-43 (2006)
Reference
PMID:16140628 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Cogliano VJ, Grosse Y, Baan RA, Straif K, Secretan MB, El Ghissassi F.
  Title
Meeting report: summary of IARC monographs on formaldehyde, 2-butoxyethanol, and 1-tert-butoxy-2-propanol.
  Journal
Environ Health Perspect 113:1205-8 (2005)
DOI:10.1289/ehp.7542
Reference
PMID:17530489 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Abnet CC.
  Title
Carcinogenic food contaminants.
  Journal
Cancer Invest 25:189-96 (2007)
DOI:10.1080/07357900701208733
Reference
PMID:15552776 (carcinogen)
  Authors
Sasco AJ, Secretan MB, Straif K.
  Title
Tobacco smoking and cancer: a brief review of recent epidemiological evidence.
  Journal
Lung Cancer 45 Suppl 2:S3-9 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.lungcan.2004.07.998
Reference
PMID:12176778 (marker)
  Authors
Chan AT, Teo PM, Johnson PJ.
  Title
Nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  Journal
Ann Oncol 13:1007-15 (2002)
DOI:10.1093/annonc/mdf179
Reference
PMID:12450734 (marker)
  Authors
Chan KC, Lo YM.
  Title
Circulating EBV DNA as a tumor marker for nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
  Journal
Semin Cancer Biol 12:489-96 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S1044579X02000913

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