KEGG   DISEASE: Type 2 diabetes mellitusHelp
Entry
H00409                      Disease                                

Name
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Description
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is characterized by chronic hyperglycemia due to insulin resistance of peripheral tissues (skeletal muscle, liver, adipose tissue) and insufficient compensatory insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells. Both insulin resistance and beta cell dysfunction are thought to result from the complex interplay of many different pathways under the combined control of environmental and genetic factors. It is accepted that T2DM results from population aging and adverse environmental factors of the modern world which favor the development of obesity.
Category
Metabolic disease; Endocrine disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Endocrine and metabolic diseases
  Diabetes
   H00409  Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 05 Endocrine, nutritional or metabolic diseases
  Endocrine diseases
   Diabetes mellitus
    5A11  Type 2 diabetes mellitus
     H00409  Type 2 diabetes mellitus
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
hsa04110  Cell cycle
hsa04115  p53 signaling pathway
hsa04350  TGF-beta signaling pathway
hsa04950  Maturity onset diabetes of the young
hsa04911  Insulin secretion
hsa04930  Type II diabetes mellitus
hsa04972  Pancreatic secretion
hsa04330  Notch signaling pathway
hsa03320  PPAR signaling pathway
hsa04310  Wnt signaling pathway
hsa04141  Protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum
Gene
CDKN2A (polymorphism) [HSA:1029] [KO:K06621]
CDKN2B (polymorphism) [HSA:1030] [KO:K04685]
IGF2BP2 (polymorphism) [HSA:10644] [KO:K17392]
CAPN10 (polymorphism) [HSA:11132] [KO:K08579]
SLC30A8 (polymorphism) [HSA:169026] [KO:K14695]
JAZF1 (polymorphism) [HSA:221895] [KO:K19495]
HHEX (polymorphism) [HSA:3087] [KO:K08024]
KCNJ11 (polymorphism) [HSA:3767] [KO:K05004]
KCNQ1 (polymorphism) [HSA:3784] [KO:K04926]
MTNR1B (polymorphism) [HSA:4544] [KO:K04286]
NOTCH2 (polymorphism) [HSA:4853] [KO:K20994]
ENPP1 (polymorphism) [HSA:5167] [KO:K01513]
PPARG (polymorphism) [HSA:5468] [KO:K08530]
CDKAL1 (polymorphism) [HSA:54901] [KO:K15865]
ADAMTS9 (polymorphism) [HSA:56999] [KO:K08624]
HNF1B (polymorphism) [HSA:6928] [KO:K08034]
TCF7L2 (polymorphism) [HSA:6934] [KO:K04491]
WFS1 (polymorphism) [HSA:7466] [KO:K14020]
FTO (polymorphism) [HSA:79068] [KO:K19469]
Drug
Insulin human [DR:D03230]
Insulin lispro [DR:D04477]
Insulin aspart [DR:D04475]
Insulin glulisine [DR:D04540]
Insulin glargine [DR:D03250]
Insulin detemir [DR:D04539]
Insulin degludec [DR:D09727]
Insulin glargine - lixisenatide mixt [DR:D11034]
Metformin hydrochloride [DR:D00944]
Glyburide [DR:D00336]
Chlorpropamide [DR:D00271]
Tolbutamide [DR:D00380]
Tolazamide [DR:D00379]
Glipizide [DR:D00335]
Glimepiride [DR:D00593]
Glipizide - metformin hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10265]
Glyburide - metformin hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10266]
Metformin hydrochloride - rosiglitazone maleate mixt [DR:D10244]
Pioglitazone hydrochloride and metformin hydrochloride tablets [DR:D09744]
Pioglitazone hydrochloride and glimepiride tablets [DR:D09848]
Metformin hydrochloride - sitagliptin phosphate mixt [DR:D10261]
Alogliptin benzoate - pioglitazone hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10159]
Metformin hydrochloride - saxagliptin hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10263]
Linagliptin - metformin hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10264]
Alogliptin benzoate - metformin hydrochloride mixt [DR:D10253]
Metformin hydrochloride - repaglinide mixt [DR:D10500]
Dapagliflozin - metformin mixt [DR:D10586]
Canagliflozin - metformin mixt [DR:D10587]
Empagliflozin - linagliptin mixt [DR:D10588]
Empagliflozin - metformin mixt [DR:D10752]
Saxagliptin - dapagliflozin mixt [DR:D10826]
Ertugliflozin - metformin mixt [DR:D11067]
Ertugliflozin - sitagliptin mixt [DR:D11066]
Acarbose [DR:D00216]
Miglitol [DR:D00625]
Rosiglitazone maleate [DR:D00596]
Pioglitazone hydrochloride [DR:D00945]
Sitagliptin phosphate [DR:D06645]
Alogliptin benzoate [DR:D06553]
Linagliptin [DR:D09566]
Exenatide [DR:D04121]
Liraglutide [DR:D06404]
Lixisenatide [DR:D09729]
Albiglutide [DR:D08843]
Dulaglutide [DR:D09889]
Semaglutide [DR:D10025]
Dapagliflozin propanediol [DR:D09763]
Canagliflozin [DR:D09592]
Empagliflozin [DR:D10459]
Ertugliflozin pidolate [DR:D11043]
Repaglinide [DR:D00594]
Nateglinide [DR:D01111]
Pramlintide acetate [DR:D05595]
Colesevelam hydrochloride [DR:D03582]
Teneligliptin hydrobromide hydrate [DR:D09756]
Anagliptin [DR:D09780]
Mitiglinide calcium hydrate - voglibose mixt [DR:D10160]
Trelagliptin succinate [DR:D10179]
Omarigliptin [DR:D10317]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 5A11
ICD-10: E11
MeSH: D003924
OMIM: 125853 601283
Reference
  Authors
Staiger H, Machicao F, Fritsche A, Haring HU
  Title
Pathomechanisms of type 2 diabetes genes.
  Journal
Endocr Rev 30:557-85 (2009)
DOI:10.1210/er.2009-0017
Reference
  Authors
Florez JC
  Title
Clinical review: the genetics of type 2 diabetes: a realistic appraisal in 2008.
  Journal
J Clin Endocrinol Metab 93:4633-42 (2008)
DOI:10.1210/jc.2008-1345
Reference
  Authors
Doria A, Patti ME, Kahn CR
  Title
The emerging genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.
  Journal
Cell Metab 8:186-200 (2008)
DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2008.08.006

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