KEGG   DISEASE: Tonsillar cancerHelp
Entry
H01509                      Disease                                

Name
Tonsillar cancer
Description
Tonsillar cancer (TC) is the most common oropharyngeal cancer and tumours are mainly squamous cell carcinomas. Traditionally, risk factors for the development of TC include the use of alcohol and/or tobacco, however a significant proportion of new cases develop in young patients without these risk factors. Recent investigation suggests that human papilloma virus (HPV) may serve as an etiology in such cases and represent a unique risk factor in a sub-set of patients. Compared with HPV-negative TC, HPV-positive TC showed a strong association with p16 overexpression, and an inverse association with EGFR amplification. HPV-16 integration status was strongly associated with c-myc amplification and HIF-1a overexpression. HPV-16 integration could be directly related to tonsillar carcinogenesis initially in tonsillar crypts, followed by cell cycle aberration such as p16 overexpression related to the G1-S phase.
Category
Cancer
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cancers
  Head and neck cancers
   H01509  Tonsillar cancer
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 02 Neoplasms
  Malignant neoplasms, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
   Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of specified sites, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
    Malignant neoplasms of lip, oral cavity or pharynx
     2B69  Malignant neoplasms of tonsil
      H01509  Tonsillar cancer
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
hsa04110 Cell cycle   
Gene
CDKN2A (overexpression) [HSA:1029] [KO:K06621]
MYC (amplification) [HSA:4609] [KO:K04377]
HIF1A (overexpression) [HSA:3091] [KO:K08268]
Carcinogen
Alcohol
Tobacco
Pathogen
Human papillomavirus type 16 [GN:T40087]
Comment
ICD-O-3: 8070/3 Squamous cell carcinoma, NOS
ICD-O-3: 8082/3 Lymphoepithelioma
ICD-O-3: 9591/3 Malignant lymphoma, non-Hodgkin, NOS
Other DBs
ICD-11: 2B69
ICD-10: C09.9
MeSH: D014067
Reference
PMID:12676252 (description, carcinogen, tumor type)
  Authors
Genden EM, Ferlito A, Scully C, Shaha AR, Higgins K, Rinaldo A
  Title
Current management of tonsillar cancer.
  Journal
Oral Oncol 39:337-42 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S1368-8375(02)00085-4
Reference
PMID:25803099 (carcinogen, marker)
  Authors
Ramqvist T, Grun N, Dalianis T
  Title
Human papillomavirus and tonsillar and base of tongue cancer.
  Journal
Viruses 7:1332-43 (2015)
DOI:10.3390/v7031332
Reference
PMID:18505048 (carcinogen, tumor type)
  Authors
Dahlstrand H, Nasman A, Romanitan M, Lindquist D, Ramqvist T, Dalianis T
  Title
Human papillomavirus accounts both for increased incidence and better prognosis in tonsillar cancer.
  Journal
Anticancer Res 28:1133-8 (2008)
Reference
PMID:17205528 (description, gene, carcinogen)
  Authors
Kim SH, Koo BS, Kang S, Park K, Kim H, Lee KR, Lee MJ, Kim JM, Choi EC, Cho NH
  Title
HPV integration begins in the tonsillar crypt and leads to the alteration of p16, EGFR and c-myc during tumor formation.
  Journal
Int J Cancer 120:1418-25 (2007)
DOI:10.1002/ijc.22464
Reference
PMID:15113849 (carcinogen, tumor type)
  Authors
Syrjanen S
  Title
HPV infections and tonsillar carcinoma.
  Journal
J Clin Pathol 57:449-55 (2004)
DOI:10.1136/jcp.2003.008656
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
Papadakis MA and McPhee SJ |(ed)
  Title
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2015, Fifty-Fourth Edition
  Journal
McGraw Hill Education

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