KEGG   DISEASE: Oropharyngeal cancerHelp
Entry
H01559                      Disease                                

Name
Oropharyngeal cancer
Description
Oropharyngeal cancer is a generic term that includes tumors arising within the anatomic confines of the posterior pharyngeal wall, soft palate, tonsillar region and posterior one-third (base) of the tongue. The vast majority of these tumors (>95%) includes squamous cell carcinomas of mucosal origin. Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (OPSCCs) are traditionally categorized as head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). High-risk human papillomavirus (HR-HPV) is now recognised as a causative agent in a subset of OPSCCs. HPV-driven OPSCC and tobacco- and alcohol-related OPSCC are biologically distinct entities. In the former, p53 and pRb are both inactivated at the protein level by, respectively, E6 and E7 viral oncoproteins. The majority of HPV-negative tumors, instead, harbor mutations in the TP53 gene, an increased epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene copy number and higher EGFR expression by immunohistochemistry (IHC).
Category
Cancer
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cancers
  Head and neck cancers
   H01559  Oropharyngeal cancer
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 02 Neoplasms
  Malignant neoplasms, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
   Malignant neoplasms, stated or presumed to be primary, of specified sites, except of lymphoid, haematopoietic, central nervous system or related tissues
    Malignant neoplasms of lip, oral cavity or pharynx
     2B6A  Malignant neoplasms of oropharynx
      H01559  Oropharyngeal cancer
BRITE hierarchy
Gene
TP53 (mutation) [HSA:7157] [KO:K04451]
EGFR (amplification, overexpression) [HSA:1956] [KO:K04361]
Carcinogen
Tobacco
Alcohol
Areca nut
Pathogen
Human papillomavirus type 16 [GN:T40087]
Comment
ICD-O-3:8071/3 Squamous cell carcinoma, keratinizing, NOS
ICD-O-3:8072/3 Squamous cell carcinoma, nonkeratinizing, NOS
ICD-O-3:8083/3 Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma
ICD-O-3:8051/3 Verrucous carcinoma, NOS
ICD-O-3:8032/3 Spindle cell carcinoma, NOS
ICD-O-3:8082/3 Lymphoepithelial carcinoma
Other DBs
ICD-11: 2B6A
ICD-10: C10
MeSH: D009959
Reference
PMID:26152442 (pathogen)
  Authors
Moore KA 2nd, Mehta V
  Title
The Growing Epidemic of HPV-Positive Oropharyngeal Carcinoma: A Clinical Review for Primary Care Providers.
  Journal
J Am Board Fam Med 28:498-503 (2015)
DOI:10.3122/jabfm.2015.04.140301
Reference
PMID:24578320 (description, gene, pathogen, drug)
  Authors
Urban D, Corry J, Rischin D
  Title
What is the best treatment for patients with human papillomavirus-positive and -negative oropharyngeal cancer?
  Journal
Cancer 120:1462-70 (2014)
DOI:10.1002/cncr.28595
Reference
PMID:26547133 (description, marker, gene, carcinogen, pathogen)
  Authors
Boscolo-Rizzo P, Pawlita M, Holzinger D
  Title
From HPV-positive towards HPV-driven oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.
  Journal
Cancer Treat Rev 42:24-9 (2016)
DOI:10.1016/j.ctrv.2015.10.009
Reference
PMID:24424107 (description, gene, pathogen)
  Authors
Mirghani H, Amen F, Moreau F, Guigay J, Hartl DM, Lacau St Guily J
  Title
Oropharyngeal cancers: relationship between epidermal growth factor receptor alterations and human papillomavirus status.
  Journal
Eur J Cancer 50:1100-11 (2014)
DOI:10.1016/j.ejca.2013.12.018
Reference
PMID:11796235 (carcinogen, pathogen)
  Authors
Licitra L, Bernier J, Grandi C, Merlano M, Bruzzi P, Lefebvre JL
  Title
Cancer of the oropharynx.
  Journal
Crit Rev Oncol Hematol 41:107-22 (2002)
DOI:10.1016/S1040-8428(01)00129-9
Reference
PMID:19111679 (carcinogen, pathogen, drug, ICD-O-3)
  Authors
Duvvuri U, Myers JN
  Title
Contemporary management of oropharyngeal cancer: anatomy and physiology of the oropharynx.
  Journal
Curr Probl Surg 46:119-84 (2009)
DOI:10.1067/j.cpsurg.2008.10.003
Reference
  Authors
van Monsjou HS, Balm AJ, van den Brekel MM, Wreesmann VB
  Title
Oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: a unique disease on the rise?
  Journal
Oral Oncol 46:780-5 (2010)
DOI:10.1016/j.oraloncology.2010.08.011

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