KEGG   DISEASE: SchizophreniaHelp
Entry
H01649                      Disease                                

Name
Schizophrenia
Description
Schizophrenia is a common serious psychotic illness that typically emerges in late adolescence and early adulthood. It is characterized by hallucinations and delusions (commonly known as positive symptoms), social withdrawal, alogia, and flat affect (negative symptoms), and cognitive disabilities. While treatments exist for the psychotic symptoms of schizophrenia, there is no effective therapy to prevent the cognitive impairments. The disorder is substantially heritable, but expression of the clinical phenotype is likely to involve the interplay of multiple susceptibility variants, epigenetic factors, and environmental influences. Although it has been suggested that many of the promising candidate genes are involved in the development and maintenance of synaptic function, the most of them remains to be identified. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying schizophrenia are unknown, but observers have repeatedly noted pathological features involving excessive loss of gray matter and reduced numbers of synaptic structures on neurons. Recently, it has been found that alleles of the C4 genes are associated with schizophrenia in proportion to their tendency to promote greater expression of C4A in the brain.
Category
Mental and behavioural disorder
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Other diseases
  Mental and behavioural disorders
   H01649  Schizophrenia
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 06 Mental, behavioural or neurodevelopmental disorders
  Schizophrenia or other primary psychotic disorders
   6A20  Schizophrenia
    H01649  Schizophrenia
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
hsa04728  Dopaminergic synapse
hsa04080  Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction
Gene
MTHFR [HSA:4524] [KO:K00297]
CHI3L1 [HSA:1116] [KO:K17523]
DISC1 [HSA:27185] [KO:K16534]
DISC2 [HSA:27184]
SYN2 [HSA:6854] [KO:K19941]
DRD3 [HSA:1814] [KO:K04146]
RTN4R [HSA:65078] [KO:K16659]
DAOA [HSA:267012]
HTR2A [HSA:3356] [KO:K04157]
AKT1 [HSA:207] [KO:K04456]
C4A [HSA:720] [KO:K03989]
APOL2 [HSA:23780] [KO:K14480]
APOL4 [HSA:80832] [KO:K14480]
Drug
Chlorpromazine hydrochloride [DR:D00789]
Fluphenazine decanoate [DR:D00793]
Perphenazine [DR:D00503]
Prochlorperazine maleate [DR:D00479]
Haloperidol decanoate [DR:D01898]
Haloperidol lactate [DR:D08035]
Ziprasidone hydrochloride [DR:D01939]
Ziprasidone mesylate [DR:D02100]
Lurasidone hydrochloride [DR:D04820]
Loxapine [DR:D02340]
Loxapine succinate [DR:D00794]
Clozapine [DR:D00283]
Olanzapine [DR:D00454]
Olanzapine pamoate [DR:D06623]
Quetiapine fumarate [DR:D00458]
Asenapine maleate [DR:D02995]
Risperidone [DR:D00426]
Aripiprazole [DR:D01164]
Aripiprazole lauroxil [DR:D10364]
Cariprazine hydrochloride [DR:D09876]
Brexpiprazole [DR:D10309]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 6A20
ICD-10: F20
MeSH: D012559
OMIM: 181500
Reference
  Authors
Austin J
  Title
Schizophrenia: an update and review.
  Journal
J Genet Couns 14:329-40 (2005)
DOI:10.1007/s10897-005-1622-4
Reference
PMID:20718829 (gene, drug)
  Authors
Cacabelos R, Martinez-Bouza R
  Title
Genomics and pharmacogenomics of schizophrenia.
  Journal
CNS Neurosci Ther 17:541-65 (2011)
DOI:10.1111/j.1755-5949.2010.00187.x
Reference
  Authors
Sekar A, Bialas AR, de Rivera H, Davis A, Hammond TR, Kamitaki N, Tooley K, Presumey J, Baum M, Van Doren V, Genovese G, Rose SA, Handsaker RE, Daly MJ, Carroll MC, Stevens B, McCarroll SA
  Title
Schizophrenia risk from complex variation of complement component 4.
  Journal
Nature 530:177-83 (2016)
DOI:10.1038/nature16549
Reference
  Authors
Mimmack ML, Ryan M, Baba H, Navarro-Ruiz J, Iritani S, Faull RL, McKenna PJ, Jones PB, Arai H, Starkey M, Emson PC, Bahn S
  Title
Gene expression analysis in schizophrenia: reproducible up-regulation of several members of the apolipoprotein L family located in a high-susceptibility locus for schizophrenia on chromosome 22.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 99:4680-5 (2002)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.032069099
Reference
  Authors
Millar JK, Wilson-Annan JC, Anderson S, Christie S, Taylor MS, Semple CA, Devon RS, St Clair DM, Muir WJ, Blackwood DH, Porteous DJ
  Title
Disruption of two novel genes by a translocation co-segregating with schizophrenia.
  Journal
Hum Mol Genet 9:1415-23 (2000)
DOI:10.1093/hmg/9.9.1415
Reference
  Authors
Sinibaldi L, De Luca A, Bellacchio E, Conti E, Pasini A, Paloscia C, Spalletta G, Caltagirone C, Pizzuti A, Dallapiccola B
  Title
Mutations of the Nogo-66 receptor (RTN4R) gene in schizophrenia.
  Journal
Hum Mutat 24:534-5 (2004)
DOI:10.1002/humu.9292

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