KEGG   ORTHOLOGY: K22458
Entry
K22458            Tight     KO                                     

Name
CCD2
Definition
crocetin dialdehyde synthase [EC:1.13.11.84]
Pathway
ko00999  Biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites - part 1
ko01100  Metabolic pathways
ko01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Brite
KEGG Orthology (KO) [BR:ko00001]
 09100 Metabolism
  09110 Biosynthesis of other secondary metabolites
   00999 Biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites - part 1
    K22458  CCD2; crocetin dialdehyde synthase
Enzymes [BR:ko01000]
 1. Oxidoreductases
  1.13  Acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen (oxygenases)
   1.13.11  With incorporation of two atoms of oxygen
    1.13.11.84  crocetin dialdehyde synthase
     K22458  CCD2; crocetin dialdehyde synthase
Other DBs
RN: R10843 R10844
Genes
AG: AIG94929(CCD2) AKN09909(CCD2)
Reference
  Authors
Frusciante S, Diretto G, Bruno M, Ferrante P, Pietrella M, Prado-Cabrero A, Rubio-Moraga A, Beyer P, Gomez-Gomez L, Al-Babili S, Giuliano G
  Title
Novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase catalyzes the first dedicated step in saffron crocin biosynthesis.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:12246-51 (2014)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.1404629111
  Sequence

KEGG   ENZYME: 1.13.11.84
Entry
EC 1.13.11.84               Enzyme                                 

Name
crocetin dialdehyde synthase;
CCD2;
zeaxanthin 7,8-dioxygenase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on single donors with incorporation of molecular oxygen (oxygenases);
With incorporation of two atoms of oxygen
Sysname
zeaxanthin:oxygen 7',8'-oxidoreductase (bond-cleaving)
Reaction(IUBMB)
zeaxanthin + 2 O2 = crocetin dialdehyde + 2 3beta-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral (overall reaction) [RN:R09603];
(1a) zeaxanthin + O2 = 3beta-hydroxy-8'-apo-beta-carotenal + 3beta-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral [RN:R10843];
(1b) 3beta-hydroxy-8'-apo-beta-carotenal + O2 = crocetin dialdehyde + 3beta-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral [RN:R10844]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
zeaxanthin [CPD:C06098];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
3beta-hydroxy-8'-apo-beta-carotenal [CPD:C20894]
Product
crocetin dialdehyde [CPD:C19730];
3beta-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral [CPD:C19731];
3beta-hydroxy-8'-apo-beta-carotenal [CPD:C20894]
Comment
The enzyme, characterized from the plant Crocus sativus (saffron), acts twice, cleaving 3beta-hydroxy-beta-cyclocitral off each 3-hydroxy end group. It is part of the zeaxanthin degradation pathway in that plant, leading to the different compounds that impart the color, flavor and aroma of the saffron spice. The enzyme can similarly cleave the 7-8 double bond of other carotenoids with a 3-hydroxy-beta-carotenoid end group.
History
EC 1.13.11.84 created 2011 as EC 1.14.99.42, modified 2014, transferred 2017 to EC 1.13.11.84
Pathway
ec00999  Biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites - part 1
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K22458  crocetin dialdehyde synthase
Reference
1  [PMID:25097262]
  Authors
Frusciante S, Diretto G, Bruno M, Ferrante P, Pietrella M, Prado-Cabrero A, Rubio-Moraga A, Beyer P, Gomez-Gomez L, Al-Babili S, Giuliano G
  Title
Novel carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase catalyzes the first dedicated step in saffron crocin biosynthesis.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:12246-51 (2014)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.1404629111
  Sequence
Reference
2  [PMID:26377696]
  Authors
Ahrazem O, Rubio-Moraga A, Berman J, Capell T, Christou P, Zhu C, Gomez-Gomez L
  Title
The carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase CCD2 catalysing the synthesis of crocetin in  spring crocuses and saffron is a plastidial enzyme.
  Journal
New Phytol 209:650-63 (2016)
DOI:10.1111/nph.13609
  Sequence
Reference
3  [PMID:28981773]
  Authors
Ahrazem O, Diretto G, Argandona J, Rubio-Moraga A, Julve JM, Orzaez D, Granell A, Gomez-Gomez L
  Title
Evolutionarily distinct carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases are responsible for crocetin production in Buddleja davidii.
  Journal
J Exp Bot 68:4663-4677 (2017)
DOI:10.1093/jxb/erx277
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.13.11.84
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.13.11.84
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.13.11.84
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.13.11.84

KEGG   REACTION: R10843
Entry
R10843                      Reaction                               

Name
zeaxanthin:oxygen oxidoreductase (7,8-cleaving)
Definition
Zeaxanthin + Oxygen <=> beta-Citraurin + (3S)-3-Hydroxycyclocitral
Equation
Comment
the first step of two-step reaction (see R09603, R10843+R10844)
Reaction class
RC01690  C06098_C20894
RC02575  C06098_C19731
Enzyme
Pathway
rn00999  Biosynthesis of various secondary metabolites - part 1
rn01100  Metabolic pathways
rn01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K22458  crocetin dialdehyde synthase [EC:1.13.11.84]
Other DBs
RHEA: 43595

DBGET integrated database retrieval system