KEGG   PATHWAY: biu04610
biu04610                    Pathway                                

Complement and coagulation cascades - Bos indicus (zebu cattle)
The complement system is a proteolytic cascade in blood plasma and a mediator of innate immunity, a nonspecific defense mechanism against pathogens. There are three pathways of complement activation: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. All of these pathways generate a crucial enzymatic activity that, in turn, generates the effector molecules of complement. The main consequences of complement activation are the opsonization of pathogens, the recruitment of inflammatory and immunocompetent cells, and the direct killing of pathogens. Blood coagulation is another series of proenzyme-to-serine protease conversions, culminating the formation of thrombin, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to the insoluble fibrin clot. Protease-activated receptors, such as those activated by thrombin, are members of G protein-coupled receptors and function as a mediator of innate immunity. The kallikrein-kinin system is an endogenous metabolic cascade, triggering of which results in the release of vasoactive kinins (bradykinin-related peptides). Kinin peptides are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes including the regulation of blood pressure and sodium homeostasis, inflammatory processes, and the cardioprotective effects of preconditioning.
Organismal Systems; Immune system
Pathway map
biu04610  Complement and coagulation cascades

Bos indicus (zebu cattle) [GN:biu]
109556805  tissue factor-like [KO:K03901]
109556041  tissue factor [KO:K03901]
109567023  F7; coagulation factor VII isoform X1 [KO:K01320] [EC:]
109567024  F10; coagulation factor X [KO:K01314] [EC:]
109570510  F5; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: coagulation factor V [KO:K03902]
109569554  F2; prothrombin isoform X1 [KO:K01313] [EC:]
109561902  F12; coagulation factor XII isoform X1 [KO:K01328] [EC:]
109553537  F11; coagulation factor XI [KO:K01323] [EC:]
109555385  F9; coagulation factor IX [KO:K01321] [EC:]
109558606  VWF; von Willebrand factor [KO:K03900]
109568053  THBD; thrombomodulin [KO:K03907]
109567397  PROCR; endothelial protein C receptor [KO:K06557]
109565294  PROC; vitamin K-dependent protein C isoform X1 [KO:K01344] [EC:]
109564649  F2R; proteinase-activated receptor 1 [KO:K03914]
109564648  F2RL2; proteinase-activated receptor 3 [KO:K04235]
109561166  F2RL3; proteinase-activated receptor 4 [KO:K04236]
109577234  F13A1; coagulation factor XIII A chain [KO:K03917] [EC:]
109570539  F13B; coagulation factor XIII B chain [KO:K03906]
109566696  CPB2; carboxypeptidase B2 isoform X1 [KO:K01300] [EC:]
109571095  FGA; fibrinogen alpha chain [KO:K03903]
109571096  FGB; fibrinogen beta chain [KO:K03904]
109571094  FGG; fibrinogen gamma chain isoform X1 [KO:K03905]
109553560  KLKB1; plasma kallikrein isoform X1 [KO:K01324] [EC:]
109562726  kininogen-1-like [KO:K03898]
109575240  BDKRB1; B1 bradykinin receptor [KO:K03915]
109575666  BDKRB2; B2 bradykinin receptor [KO:K03916]
109564099  PLG; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: plasminogen [KO:K01315] [EC:]
109565684  TFPI; tissue factor pathway inhibitor isoform X1 [KO:K03909]
109570422  SERPINC1; antithrombin-III isoform X1 [KO:K03911]
109571215  SERPIND1; heparin cofactor 2 [KO:K03912]
109575594  SERPINA5; plasma serine protease inhibitor [KO:K03913]
109562779  PROS1; vitamin K-dependent protein S [KO:K03908]
109578652  SERPINE1; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 [KO:K03982]
109577715  plasminogen activator inhibitor 2-like [KO:K19821]
109577977  plasminogen activator inhibitor 2-like [KO:K19821]
109553480  PLAT; tissue-type plasminogen activator [KO:K01343] [EC:]
109553885  PLAU; urokinase-type plasminogen activator [KO:K01348] [EC:]
109572989  PLAUR; urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor isoform X1 [KO:K03985]
109575576  SERPINA1; alpha-1-antitrypsin [KO:K03984]
109573841  SERPINF2; alpha-2-antiplasmin isoform X1 [KO:K03983]
109559691  alpha-2-macroglobulin isoform X1 [KO:K03910]
109576933  CFB; complement factor B [KO:K01335] [EC:]
109561686  C3; complement C3 [KO:K03990]
109563409  C5; complement C5 [KO:K03994]
109574981  C6; complement component C6 [KO:K03995]
109574935  C7; complement component C7 [KO:K03996]
109556242  C8A; complement component C8 alpha chain [KO:K03997]
109556241  C8B; complement component C8 beta chain [KO:K03998]
109566624  C8G; complement component C8 gamma chain isoform X1 [KO:K03999]
109574958  C9; complement component C9 [KO:K04000]
109574058  C1QA; complement C1q subcomponent subunit A [KO:K03986]
109574037  C1QB; complement C1q subcomponent subunit B [KO:K03987]
109574050  C1QC; complement C1q subcomponent subunit C [KO:K03988]
109558899  complement C1r subcomponent-like isoform X1 [KO:K01330] [EC:]
109558901  C1R; complement C1r subcomponent isoform X1 [KO:K01330] [EC:]
109558321  complement C1r subcomponent-like [KO:K01330] [EC:]
109558903  C1S; complement C1s subcomponent [KO:K01331] [EC:]
109553916  mannose-binding protein A-like [KO:K03991]
109553201  MBL2; mannose-binding protein C [KO:K03991]
109556918  MASP1; mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 isoform X1 [KO:K03992] [EC:3.4.21.-]
109570390  MASP2; mannan-binding lectin serine protease 2 isoform X1 [KO:K03993] [EC:]
109576932  C2; complement C2 isoform X1 [KO:K01332] [EC:]
109576941  complement C4-like [KO:K03989]
109576944  complement C4 [KO:K03989]
109576672  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: complement C4-A-like [KO:K03989]
109559700  C3AR1; C3a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor [KO:K04009]
109555456  VSIG4; V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein 4 isoform X1 [KO:K19822]
109560786  ITGB2; integrin beta-2 [KO:K06464]
109572958  C5AR1; C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor 1 [KO:K04010]
109570520  complement factor H isoform X1 [KO:K04004]
109560254  CFI; complement factor I [KO:K01333] [EC:]
109569712  SERPING1; plasma protease C1 inhibitor [KO:K04001]
109570212  membrane cofactor protein-like [KO:K04007]
109570214  membrane cofactor protein-like [KO:K04007]
109570419  CD46; membrane cofactor protein isoform X1 [KO:K04007]
109570213  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: membrane cofactor protein-like [KO:K04007]
109570441  complement factor H-related protein 1-like isoform X1 [KO:K23815]
109570540  complement factor H-related protein 2-like [KO:K23815]
109570541  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: complement factor H-related protein 3-like [KO:K23815]
109570538  complement factor H-related protein 5-like isoform X1 [KO:K23817]
109569753  CD59; CD59 glycoprotein [KO:K04008]
109562811  clusterin [KO:K17252]
109574379  VTN; vitronectin [KO:K06251]
C00290  Fibrin
Bajic G, Degn SE, Thiel S, Andersen GR
Complement activation, regulation, and molecular basis for complement-related diseases.
EMBO J 34:2735-57 (2015)
Mathern DR, Heeger PS
Molecules Great and Small: The Complement System.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 10:1636-50 (2015)
Merle NS, Church SE, Fremeaux-Bacchi V, Roumenina LT
Complement System Part I - Molecular Mechanisms of Activation and Regulation.
Front Immunol 6:262 (2015)
Oikonomopoulou K, Ricklin D, Ward PA, Lambris JD
Interactions between coagulation and complement--their role in inflammation.
Semin Immunopathol 34:151-65 (2012)
Kurosawa S, Stearns-Kurosawa DJ
Complement, thrombotic microangiopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
J Intensive Care 2:65 (2014)
Hillmeister P, Persson PB
The Kallikrein-Kinin system.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) 206:215-9 (2012)
Rau JC, Beaulieu LM, Huntington JA, Church FC
Serpins in thrombosis, hemostasis and fibrinolysis.
J Thromb Haemost 5 Suppl 1:102-15 (2007)
Crooks MG, Hart SP
Coagulation and anticoagulation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Eur Respir Rev 24:392-9 (2015)
Christiaans SC, Wagener BM, Esmon CT, Pittet JF
Protein C and acute inflammation: a clinical and biological perspective.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 305:L455-66 (2013)
Alberelli MA, De Candia E
Functional role of protease activated receptors in vascular biology.
Vascul Pharmacol 62:72-81 (2014)
Smith HW, Marshall CJ
Regulation of cell signalling by uPAR.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 11:23-36 (2010)
Ricklin D, Lambris JD
Complement in immune and inflammatory disorders: pathophysiological mechanisms.
J Immunol 190:3831-8 (2013)
Ricklin D, Lambris JD
Complement in immune and inflammatory disorders: therapeutic interventions.
J Immunol 190:3839-47 (2013)
Loof TG, Deicke C, Medina E
The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 4:128 (2014)
Jozsi M, Tortajada A, Uzonyi B, Goicoechea de Jorge E, Rodriguez de Cordoba S
Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.
Trends Immunol 36:374-84 (2015)
biu04611  Platelet activation
biu04662  B cell receptor signaling pathway
biu04750  Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels
KO pathway

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