KEGG   PATHWAY: dro04610
dro04610                    Pathway                                

Complement and coagulation cascades - Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat)
The complement system is a proteolytic cascade in blood plasma and a mediator of innate immunity, a nonspecific defense mechanism against pathogens. There are three pathways of complement activation: the classical pathway, the lectin pathway, and the alternative pathway. All of these pathways generate a crucial enzymatic activity that, in turn, generates the effector molecules of complement. The main consequences of complement activation are the opsonization of pathogens, the recruitment of inflammatory and immunocompetent cells, and the direct killing of pathogens. Blood coagulation is another series of proenzyme-to-serine protease conversions, culminating the formation of thrombin, the enzyme responsible for the conversion of soluble fibrinogen to the insoluble fibrin clot. Protease-activated receptors, such as those activated by thrombin, are members of G protein-coupled receptors and function as a mediator of innate immunity. The kallikrein-kinin system is an endogenous metabolic cascade, triggering of which results in the release of vasoactive kinins (bradykinin-related peptides). Kinin peptides are implicated in many physiological and pathological processes including the regulation of blood pressure and sodium homeostasis, inflammatory processes, and the cardioprotective effects of preconditioning.
Organismal Systems; Immune system
Pathway map
dro04610  Complement and coagulation cascades

Desmodus rotundus (common vampire bat) [GN:dro]
112309216  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: tissue factor-like [KO:K03901]
112309286  tissue factor-like [KO:K03901]
112321523  F7; coagulation factor VII [KO:K01320] [EC:]
112321507  F10; coagulation factor X [KO:K01314] [EC:]
112297093  F5; coagulation factor V [KO:K03902]
112303389  F2; prothrombin [KO:K01313] [EC:]
112320387  F12; coagulation factor XII [KO:K01328] [EC:]
112300060  F9; coagulation factor IX isoform X1 [KO:K01321] [EC:]
112321736  VWF; von Willebrand factor [KO:K03900]
112308196  F8; coagulation factor VIII isoform X1 [KO:K03899]
112304194  THBD; thrombomodulin [KO:K03907]
112304023  PROCR; endothelial protein C receptor [KO:K06557]
112312995  PROC; vitamin K-dependent protein C [KO:K01344] [EC:]
112307510  F2R; proteinase-activated receptor 1 [KO:K03914]
112307548  F2RL2; LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: proteinase-activated receptor 3 [KO:K04235]
112304954  F2RL3; proteinase-activated receptor 4 [KO:K04236]
112297531  F13A1; coagulation factor XIII A chain [KO:K03917] [EC:]
112318924  F13B; coagulation factor XIII B chain [KO:K03906]
112310676  CPB2; carboxypeptidase B2 isoform X1 [KO:K01300] [EC:]
112312340  FGA; fibrinogen alpha chain [KO:K03903]
112312668  FGB; fibrinogen beta chain isoform X1 [KO:K03904]
112312338  FGG; fibrinogen gamma chain [KO:K03905]
112306752  KLKB1; plasma kallikrein [KO:K01324] [EC:]
112305173  KNG1; kininogen-1 isoform X1 [KO:K03898]
112305188  kininogen-1-like isoform X1 [KO:K03898]
112310964  BDKRB1; B1 bradykinin receptor [KO:K03915]
112311203  BDKRB2; B2 bradykinin receptor [KO:K03916]
112297415  PLG; plasminogen isoform X1 [KO:K01315] [EC:]
112305841  tissue factor pathway inhibitor-like [KO:K03909]
112305840  TFPI; tissue factor pathway inhibitor [KO:K03909]
112297003  SERPINC1; antithrombin-III [KO:K03911]
112301660  SERPIND1; heparin cofactor 2 [KO:K03912]
112311887  SERPINA5; plasma serine protease inhibitor [KO:K03913]
112302582  PROS1; vitamin K-dependent protein S [KO:K03908]
112314968  SERPINE1; plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 [KO:K03982]
112322996  SERPINB2; plasminogen activator inhibitor 2 [KO:K19821]
112321404  PLAT; tissue-type plasminogen activator isoform X1 [KO:K01343] [EC:]
112305567  PLAU; urokinase-type plasminogen activator [KO:K01348] [EC:]
112312905  PLAUR; urokinase plasminogen activator surface receptor [KO:K03985]
112311466  SERPINA1; alpha-1-antitrypsin [KO:K03984]
112311528  alpha-1-antiproteinase 2-like [KO:K03984]
112308905  SERPINF2; alpha-2-antiplasmin isoform X1 [KO:K03983]
112321860  alpha-2-macroglobulin-like isoform X1 [KO:K03910]
112302049  complement factor B-like isoform X1 [KO:K01335] [EC:]
112312430  C3; complement C3 [KO:K03990]
112306366  C5; complement C5 isoform X1 [KO:K03994]
112321121  C6; complement component C6 [KO:K03995]
112321051  C7; complement component C7 [KO:K03996]
112314663  C8A; complement component C8 alpha chain [KO:K03997]
112314657  C8B; complement component C8 beta chain [KO:K03998]
112306588  C8G; complement component C8 gamma chain [KO:K03999]
112320977  C9; complement component C9 [KO:K04000]
112299476  C1QA; complement C1q subcomponent subunit A isoform X1 [KO:K03986]
112299478  C1QB; complement C1q subcomponent subunit B [KO:K03987]
112299477  C1QC; complement C1q subcomponent subunit C [KO:K03988]
112321892  C1R; complement C1r subcomponent [KO:K01330] [EC:]
112321891  C1S; complement C1s subcomponent [KO:K01331] [EC:]
112307312  MBL2; mannose-binding protein C [KO:K03991]
112305370  LOW QUALITY PROTEIN: mannose-binding protein A-like [KO:K03991]
112305221  MASP1; mannan-binding lectin serine protease 1 isoform X1 [KO:K03992] [EC:3.4.21.-]
112299103  MASP2; mannan-binding lectin serine protease 2 [KO:K03993] [EC:]
112302138  complement C4-A-like [KO:K03989]
112321974  C3AR1; C3a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor [KO:K04009]
112300063  VSIG4; V-set and immunoglobulin domain-containing protein 4 [KO:K19822]
112318208  CR1; complement receptor type 1 [KO:K04011]
112304783  ITGAM; integrin alpha-M [KO:K06461]
112304402  ITGB2; integrin beta-2 [KO:K06464]
112304778  ITGAX; integrin alpha-X [KO:K06462]
112312961  C5AR1; C5a anaphylatoxin chemotactic receptor 1 isoform X1 [KO:K04010]
112318788  CFH; complement factor H [KO:K04004]
112296270  CFI; complement factor I [KO:K01333] [EC:]
112320311  SERPING1; plasma protease C1 inhibitor [KO:K04001]
112318131  CD55; complement decay-accelerating factor [KO:K04006]
112296309  membrane cofactor protein-like [KO:K04007]
112318353  membrane cofactor protein-like [KO:K04007]
112297405  membrane cofactor protein-like isoform X1 [KO:K04007]
112318278  membrane cofactor protein-like [KO:K04007]
112315982  C4BPA; C4b-binding protein alpha chain [KO:K04002]
112315973  C4BPB; C4b-binding protein beta chain [KO:K04003]
112303332  CD59; CD59 glycoprotein [KO:K04008]
112312553  CLU; clusterin isoform X1 [KO:K17252]
112308898  VTN; vitronectin [KO:K06251]
C00290  Fibrin
Bajic G, Degn SE, Thiel S, Andersen GR
Complement activation, regulation, and molecular basis for complement-related diseases.
EMBO J 34:2735-57 (2015)
Mathern DR, Heeger PS
Molecules Great and Small: The Complement System.
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 10:1636-50 (2015)
Merle NS, Church SE, Fremeaux-Bacchi V, Roumenina LT
Complement System Part I - Molecular Mechanisms of Activation and Regulation.
Front Immunol 6:262 (2015)
Oikonomopoulou K, Ricklin D, Ward PA, Lambris JD
Interactions between coagulation and complement--their role in inflammation.
Semin Immunopathol 34:151-65 (2012)
Kurosawa S, Stearns-Kurosawa DJ
Complement, thrombotic microangiopathy and disseminated intravascular coagulation.
J Intensive Care 2:65 (2014)
Hillmeister P, Persson PB
The Kallikrein-Kinin system.
Acta Physiol (Oxf) 206:215-9 (2012)
Rau JC, Beaulieu LM, Huntington JA, Church FC
Serpins in thrombosis, hemostasis and fibrinolysis.
J Thromb Haemost 5 Suppl 1:102-15 (2007)
Crooks MG, Hart SP
Coagulation and anticoagulation in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Eur Respir Rev 24:392-9 (2015)
Christiaans SC, Wagener BM, Esmon CT, Pittet JF
Protein C and acute inflammation: a clinical and biological perspective.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 305:L455-66 (2013)
Alberelli MA, De Candia E
Functional role of protease activated receptors in vascular biology.
Vascul Pharmacol 62:72-81 (2014)
Smith HW, Marshall CJ
Regulation of cell signalling by uPAR.
Nat Rev Mol Cell Biol 11:23-36 (2010)
Ricklin D, Lambris JD
Complement in immune and inflammatory disorders: pathophysiological mechanisms.
J Immunol 190:3831-8 (2013)
Ricklin D, Lambris JD
Complement in immune and inflammatory disorders: therapeutic interventions.
J Immunol 190:3839-47 (2013)
Loof TG, Deicke C, Medina E
The role of coagulation/fibrinolysis during Streptococcus pyogenes infection.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol 4:128 (2014)
Jozsi M, Tortajada A, Uzonyi B, Goicoechea de Jorge E, Rodriguez de Cordoba S
Factor H-related proteins determine complement-activating surfaces.
Trends Immunol 36:374-84 (2015)
dro04611  Platelet activation
dro04662  B cell receptor signaling pathway
dro04750  Inflammatory mediator regulation of TRP channels
KO pathway

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