KEGG   DISEASE: Subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy (SMON)
Entry
H01578                      Disease                                

Name
Subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy (SMON)
Description
Subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy (SMON) is a severe neurodegenerative disorder caused by poisoning due to over-dose and prolonged oral administration of clioquinol. SMON is characterized by subacute onset of sensory and motor disorders in the lower half of the body and visual impairment preceded by abdominal symptoms, such as abdominal pain and diarrhea. Despite clinical features mimicking infection or multiple sclerosis, the discovery of the green hairy tongue and the green urine in SMON patients aroused researchers' interest and thereby began solving the cause of SMON. The green color was derived from a chelate compound of clioquinol with ferric iron. A large number of SMON were observed throughout Japan, and the total number of cases reached nearly 10,000 by 1970. After the governmental ban on the use of clioquinol in September 1970, there was a dramatic disappearance of new case of SMON. However, in Japan, there are still more than 2500 SMON patients suffering from severe dysesthesia/paresthesia and ataxic paraplegia.
Category
Neurodegenerative disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Nervous system diseases
  Neurodegenerative diseases
   H01578  Subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy (SMON)
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 08 Diseases of the nervous system
  Disorders of nerve root, plexus or peripheral nerves
   Polyneuropathy
    8C02  Toxic neuropathy
     H01578  Subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy (SMON)
Env factor
Clioquinol
Other DBs
ICD-11: 8C02.0
ICD-10: G62.0
MeSH: D011115
Reference
  Authors
Kimura E, Hirano T, Yamashita S, Hirai T, Uchida Y, Maeda Y, Uchino M
  Title
Cervical MRI of subacute myelo-optico-neuropathy.
  Journal
Spinal Cord 49:182-5 (2011)
DOI:10.1038/sc.2010.68
Reference
  Authors
Igata A
  Title
Subacute myelooptic neuropathy, beriberi, and HTLVIassociated myelopathy: elucidation of some neurological diseases in Japan.
  Journal
Pol Arch Med Wewn 122 Suppl 1:32-41 (2012)
Reference
PMID:3210443
  Authors
Hata T, Kita T, Itoh E, Oyama R, Kawabata A
  Title
Mechanism of the analgesic effect of neurotropin.
  Journal
Jpn J Pharmacol 48:165-73 (1988)
DOI:10.1254/jjp.48.165

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