KEGG   DISEASE: Alcohol dependenceHelp
Entry
H01611                      Disease                                

Name
Alcohol dependence
Description
Alcohol dependence (AD) is a chronic but often disease that includes problems in controlling one's drinking, being preoccupied with alcohol, continuing to use alcohol even when it causes problems, having to drink more to get the same effect (physical dependence), or having withdrawal symptoms when one rapidly decreases or stops drinking. The contribution of genetic factors to the development of AD is high. The best classical candidate genes for AD are alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Both genes are involved in enzymatic degradation of alcohol. Recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have reported that the most robust associations for AD have been with such enzyme genes, especially ALDH2 in East Asian populations and ADH1B in European American and African American populations.
Category
Mental and behavioural disorder
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Other diseases
  Mental and behavioural disorders
   H01611  Alcohol dependence
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 06 Mental, behavioural or neurodevelopmental disorders
  Disorders due to substance use or addictive behaviours
   Disorders due to substance use
    6C40  Disorders due to use of alcohol
     H01611  Alcohol dependence
BRITE hierarchy
Pathway
hsa05034 Alcoholism   
hsa04080 Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction   
Gene
ALDH2 (polymorphism) [HSA:217] [KO:K00128]
ADH1B (polymorphism) [HSA:125] [KO:K13951]
ADH1C (polymorphism) [HSA:126] [KO:K13951]
OPRM1 (polymorphism) [HSA:4988] [KO:K04215]
DRD2 (polymorphism) [HSA:1813] [KO:K04145]
HTR2A (polymorphism) [HSA:3356] [KO:K04157]
GABRA2 (polymorphism) [HSA:2555] [KO:K05175]
TAS2R16 (polymorphism) [HSA:50833] [KO:K08474]
Drug
Disulfiram [DR:D00131]
Acamprosate calcium [DR:D02780]
Naltrexone [DR:D05113]
Naltrexone hydrochloride [DR:D02095]
Other DBs
ICD-11: 6C40.2
ICD-10: F10.2 F10.5
MeSH: D000437
OMIM: 103780
Reference
PMID:25985735 (gene, drug)
  Authors
Thompson A, Owens L, Pushpakom SP, Faizal M, Pirmohamed M
  Title
Pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence: A stratified approach.
  Journal
Pharmacol Ther 153:10-24 (2015)
DOI:10.1016/j.pharmthera.2015.05.010
Reference
PMID:23810221 (drug)
  Authors
Franck J, Jayaram-Lindstrom N
  Title
Pharmacotherapy for alcohol dependence: status of current treatments.
  Journal
Curr Opin Neurobiol 23:692-9 (2013)
DOI:10.1016/j.conb.2013.05.005
Reference
  Authors
Samochowiec J, Samochowiec A, Puls I, Bienkowski P, Schott BH
  Title
Genetics of alcohol dependence: a review of clinical studies.
  Journal
Neuropsychobiology 70:77-94 (2014)
DOI:10.1159/000364826
Reference
  Authors
Hart AB, Kranzler HR
  Title
Alcohol Dependence Genetics: Lessons Learned From Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS) and Post-GWAS Analyses.
  Journal
Alcohol Clin Exp Res 39:1312-27 (2015)
DOI:10.1111/acer.12792
Reference
  Authors
Zuo L, Lu L, Tan Y, Pan X, Cai Y, Wang X, Hong J, Zhong C, Wang F, Zhang XY, Vanderlinden LA, Tabakoff B, Luo X
  Title
Genome-wide association discoveries of alcohol dependence.
  Journal
Am J Addict 23:526-39 (2014)
DOI:10.1111/j.1521-0391.2014.12147.x
Reference
PMID:24456374 (drug)
  Authors
Muller CA, Geisel O, Banas R, Heinz A
  Title
Current pharmacological treatment approaches for alcohol dependence.
  Journal
Expert Opin Pharmacother 15:471-81 (2014)
DOI:10.1517/14656566.2014.876008
Reference
  Authors
Rietschel M, Treutlein J
  Title
The genetics of alcohol dependence.
  Journal
Ann N Y Acad Sci 1282:39-70 (2013)
DOI:10.1111/j.1749-6632.2012.06794.x
Reference
  Authors
Nieratschker V, Batra A, Fallgatter AJ
  Title
Genetics and epigenetics of alcohol dependence.
  Journal
J Mol Psychiatry 1:11 (2013)
DOI:10.1186/2049-9256-1-11
Reference
  Authors
Prescott CA, Sullivan PF, Kuo PH, Webb BT, Vittum J, Patterson DG, Thiselton DL, Myers JM, Devitt M, Halberstadt LJ, Robinson VP, Neale MC, van den Oord EJ, Walsh D, Riley BP, Kendler KS
  Title
Genomewide linkage study in the Irish affected sib pair study of alcohol dependence: evidence for a susceptibility region for symptoms of alcohol dependence on chromosome 4.
  Journal
Mol Psychiatry 11:603-11 (2006)
DOI:10.1038/sj.mp.4001811

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