KEGG   DISEASE: High blood pressureHelp
Entry
H01633                      Disease                                

Name
High blood pressure;
Hypertension
Description
High blood pressure (hypertension) is the most frequent classic cardiovascular risk factor and accounts for a large proportion of cardiovascular mortality, the main cause of death worldwide. Hypertension is generally classified as primary (essential) or secondary. Essential hypertension (EH) is the most common diagnosis in this disease, suggesting that a monocausal etiology has not been identified. However, a number of risk factors associated with EH have also been identified such as age, sex, demographic, environmental, genetic, and vascular factors. Secondary hypertension generally has an earlier age at onset, no family history, and a clear cause such as a renal or endocrine disorder, or an iatrogenic trigger, such as use of oral contraceptives. Blood pressure is a heritable trait; an estimated 30% of variance in blood pressure relates to genetic factors. Understanding of the genetic architecture of traits has progressed in rare mendelian hypertensive phenotypes, such as Gordon's syndrome.
Category
Cardiovascular disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Cardiovascular diseases
  Hypertensive diseases
   H01633  High blood pressure
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 11 Diseases of the circulatory system
  Hypertensive diseases
   BA00  Essential hypertension
    H01633  High blood pressure
BRITE hierarchy
Gene
CYP11B2 [HSA:1585] [KO:K07433]
CYP11B1 [HSA:1584] [KO:K00497]
HSD11B2 [HSA:3291] [KO:K00071]
NR3C2 [HSA:4306] [KO:K08555]
SCNN1B [HSA:6338] [KO:K04825]
SCNN1G [HSA:6340] [KO:K04827]
Env factor
Excess consumption of sodium [CPD:C01330]
Excess consumption of coffee
Excess consumption of alcohol
Drug
Methyldopa [DR:D00405]
Clonidine hydrochloride [DR:D00604]
Guanfacine hydrochloride [DR:D00606]
Mecamylamine hydrochloride [DR:D00611]
Prazosin hydrochloride [DR:D00609]
Doxazosin mesylate [DR:D00608]
Hydralazine hydrochloride [DR:D01302]
Minoxidil [DR:D00418]
Methyldopa and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10267]
Clonidine and chlorthalidone [DR:D10591]
Hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D00340]
Chlorothiazide [DR:D00519]
Methyclothiazide [DR:D00656]
Chlorthalidone [DR:D00272]
Indapamide [DR:D00345]
Furosemide [DR:D00331]
Torsemide [DR:D00382]
Spironolactone [DR:D00443]
Eplerenone [DR:D01115]
Hydrochlorothiazide and triamterene [DR:D10269]
Spironolactone and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10270]
Amiloride hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10271]
Phenoxybenzamine hydrochloride [DR:D00507]
Diltiazem hydrochloride [DR:D00616]
Pindolol [DR:D00513]
Propranolol hydrochloride [DR:D00483]
Nadolol [DR:D00432]
Metoprolol tartrate [DR:D00601]
Metoprolol succinate [DR:D00635]
Atenolol [DR:D00235]
Acebutolol hydrochloride [DR:D00597]
Betaxolol hydrochloride [DR:D00598]
Bisoprolol fumarate [DR:D00634]
Esmolol hydrochloride [DR:D00644]
Nebivolol hydrochloride [DR:D06622]
Labetalol hydrochloride [DR:D00600]
Carvedilol [DR:D00255]
Carvedilol phosphate [DR:D03415]
Propranolol hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10274]
Nadolol and bendroflumethiazide [DR:D10272]
Metoprolol and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10273]
Bisoprolol fumarate and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10275]
Atenolol and chlorthalidone [DR:D10592]
Amlodipine besylate [DR:D00615]
Felodipine [DR:D00319]
Isradipine [DR:D00349]
Nicardipine hydrochloride [DR:D00617]
Nifedipine [DR:D00437]
Nisoldipine [DR:D00618]
Clevidipine [DR:D08892]
Verapamil hydrochloride [DR:D00619]
Captopril [DR:D00251]
Enalapril maleate [DR:D00621]
Lisinopril [DR:D00362]
Perindopril erbumine [DR:D00624]
Ramipril [DR:D00421]
Quinapril hydrochloride [DR:D00459]
Benazepril hydrochloride [DR:D00620]
Fosinopril sodium [DR:D00622]
Trandolapril [DR:D00383]
Moexipril hydrochloride [DR:D00623]
Captopril and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10276]
Enalapril maleate and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10277]
Hydrochlorothiazide and lisinopril [DR:D10268]
Quinapril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10278]
Benazepril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10279]
Fosinopril and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10280]
Moexipril hydrochloride and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10281]
Perindopril and amlodipine [DR:D11581]
Trandolapril and verapamil hydrochloride [DR:D10282]
Losartan potassium [DR:D00357]
Eprosartan mesylate [DR:D02082]
Valsartan [DR:D00400]
Irbesartan [DR:D00523]
Candesartan cilexetil [DR:D00626]
Telmisartan [DR:D00627]
Olmesartan medoxomil [DR:D01204]
Azilsartan medoxomil [DR:D08067]
Azilsartan kamedoxomil [DR:D08865]
Losartan potassium and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D07895]
Eprosartan mesylate and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10283]
Valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D09197]
Irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10249]
Candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D09196]
Telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D09219]
Olmesartan medoxomil and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10284]
Azilsartan medoxomil and chlorthalidone [DR:D10589]
Valsartan and amlodipine besilate [DR:D09745]
Amlodipine besylate and olmesartan medoxomil [DR:D10285]
Telmisartan and amlodipine besilate [DR:D09743]
Amlodipine, valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10286]
Olmesartan medoxomil, amlodipine besylate and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10288]
Nebivolol and valsartan [DR:D11388]
Aliskiren fumarate [DR:D06412]
Aliskiren hemifumarate and hydrochlorothiazide [DR:D10289]
Enalaprilat [DR:D03769]
Methyldopate hydrochloride [DR:D04997]
Amlodipine and benazepril [DR:D11069]
Terazosin hydrochloride anhydrous [DR:D11585]
Other DBs
ICD-11: BA00
ICD-10: I10
MeSH: D006973
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
Foex P, Sear JW.
  Title
Hypertension: pathophysiology and treatment.
  Journal
Critical Care & Pain 4(3):71-75 (2004)
DOI:10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkh020
Reference
  Authors
Poulter NR, Prabhakaran D, Caulfield M
  Title
Hypertension.
  Journal
Lancet 386:801-12 (2015)
DOI:10.1016/S0140-6736(14)61468-9
Reference
(drug)
  Authors
Papadakis MA and McPhee SJ |(ed)
  Title
Current Medical Diagnosis & Treatment 2015, Fifty-Fourth Edition
  Journal
McGraw Hill Education
Reference
PMID:27028574 (gene, env_factor)
  Authors
Singh M, Singh AK, Pandey P, Chandra S, Singh KA, Gambhir IS
  Title
Molecular genetics of essential hypertension.
  Journal
Clin Exp Hypertens 38:268-77 (2016)
DOI:10.3109/10641963.2015.1116543
Reference
  Authors
Ehret GB, Caulfield MJ
  Title
Genes for blood pressure: an opportunity to understand hypertension.
  Journal
Eur Heart J 34:951-61 (2013)
DOI:10.1093/eurheartj/ehs455

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