KEGG   DISEASE: HyperlipidemiaHelp
Entry
H01635                      Disease                                

Name
Hyperlipidemia
  Subgroup
Hyperlipoproteinemia
Autosomal dominant hypercholesterolaemia [DS:H00155]
Familial autosomal recessive hypercholesterolemia [DS:H01918]
Hypertriglyceridemia
Mixed dyslipidemia [DS:H00157]
Description
Dyslipidemia is a condition characterized by either an increase or decrease in concentration of lipids in the blood. Hyperlipidemia, which refers to an increase in cholesterol, triglyceride (TG), or both, is the most common form of dyslipidemia. Hyperlipidemias can be classified as familial (also called primary) caused by an inherited gene mutation, or acquired (also called secondary) when resulting from underlying disorders that lead to alterations in plasma lipid and lipoprotein metabolism. The causes of acquired hyperlipidemia include dietary, alcohol intake, oral contraceptives, diabetes mellitus, and pharmacological agents (e.g., retinoic acid derivatives, steroids, and beta-blockers). Familial hyperlipidemias are classified according to the Fredrickson classification (hyperlipoproteinemia types I to V) which is based on lipoprotein analyses by electrophoresis or ultracentrifugation. It was later adopted by the World Health Organization (WHO). Hyperlipidemias are also classified according to which types of lipids are elevated. Hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and combined hyperlipidemia refer to elevations involving the major cholesterol-rich lipoproteins (LDL), triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (VLDL), and both, respectively.
Category
Metabolic disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Endocrine and metabolic diseases
  Other endocrine and metabolic diseases
   H01635  Hyperlipidemia
Human diseases in ICD-10 classification [BR:br08403]
 4. Endocrine, nutritional and metabolic diseases (E00-E90)
  E70-E90  Metabolic disorders
   E78  Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism and other lipidaemias
    H01635  Hyperlipidemia
BRITE hierarchy
Network
N00333  Mutation-caused aberrant APOB to vesicular uptake of lipoproteins
N00334  Mutation-inactivated LDLR to vesicular uptake of lipoproteins
N00335  Mutation-inactivated LDLRAP1 to vesicular uptake of lipoproteins
N00337  Mutation-activated PCSK9 to PCSK9-mediated LDLR degradation
Gene
(Hyperlipoproteinemia type 1) APOC2 [HSA:344] [KO:K22287]
(Hyperlipoproteinemia type 1,2) LPL [HSA:4023] [KO:K01059]
(Hyperlipoproteinemia type 2) LDLR [HSA:3949] [KO:K12473]
(Hyperlipoproteinemia type 5) APOA5 [HSA:116519] [KO:K09025]
Drug
Niacin [DR:D00049]
Simvastatin [DR:D00434]
Lovastatin [DR:D00359]
Pravastatin sodium [DR:D00893]
Fluvastatin sodium [DR:D00892]
Atorvastatin calcium [DR:D02258]
Rosuvastatin calcium [DR:D01915]
Pitavastatin calcium [DR:D01862]
Gemfibrozil [DR:D00334]
Fenofibrate [DR:D00565]
Choline fenofibrate [DR:D08890]
Colesevelam hydrochloride [DR:D03582]
Ezetimibe [DR:D01966]
Evolocumab [DR:D10557]
Alirocumab [DR:D10335]
Niacin - lovastatin mixt [DR:D10292]
Ezetimibe - simvastatin mixt [DR:D10257]
Icosapent ethyl [DR:D01892]
Other DBs
ICD-10: E78
MeSH: D006949
OMIM: 238600 207750 143890 144250 144650
Reference
PMID:19306526 (description)
  Authors
Alwaili K, Alrasadi K, Awan Z, Genest J
  Title
Approach to the diagnosis and management of lipoprotein disorders.
  Journal
Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes 16:132-40 (2009)
DOI:10.1097/MED.0b013e328329135a
Reference
PMID:2192873 (description)
  Authors
Chait A, Brunzell JD
  Title
Acquired hyperlipidemia (secondary dyslipoproteinemias).
  Journal
Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am 19:259-78 (1990)
Reference
PMID:4930042 (description)
  Authors
Beaumont JL, Carlson LA, Cooper GR, Fejfar Z, Fredrickson DS, Strasser T
  Title
Classification of hyperlipidaemias and hyperlipoproteinaemias.
  Journal
Bull World Health Organ 43:891-915 (1970)
Reference
PMID:193431 (description)
  Authors
Havel RJ
  Title
Classifications of the hyperlipidemias.
  Journal
Annu Rev Med 28:195-209 (1977)
DOI:10.1146/annurev.me.28.020177.001211

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