KEGG   DISEASE: PsoriasisHelp
Entry
H01656                      Disease                                

Name
Psoriasis
Description
Psoriasis (PSORS) is a chronic, immune-mediated inflammatory skin disease, characterized by increased propagation of the epidermis with dilation of dermal capillaries. The major symptoms of psoriasis are itchy, scaly, and flaky skin, swelling, pain, and disfiguring skin lesions. Plaque psoriasis is the most common form. Other forms include flexural, guttate, nail, inverse psoriasis, erythroderma, and psoriatic arthritis. Nail psoriasis can accompany any form of psoriasis or occur of its own accord. It can occur in any age group, but psoriatic arthritis usually develops between the ages of 30-50 years. Various factors such as bacterial infection, genetic and environmental factors, and immune disorders play an important role in causing psoriasis. Psoriasis is associated with several comorbidities, including cardiovascular disease, lymphoma, and depression. Psoriasis is an immune-mediated disease with genetic predisposition, but no distinct immunogen has been identified. The presence of cytokines, dendritic cells, and T lymphocytes in psoriatic lesions has prompted the development of biologic therapies. The diagnosis is usually clinical, based on the presence of typical erythematous scaly patches, papules, and plaques that are often pruritic and sometimes painful. Biopsy is rarely needed to confirm the diagnosis. First-line therapies for most patients are topical treatments such as topical corticosteroids and vitamin D analogs. For those with more severe or treatment-resistant disease, second- or third-line therapies include phototherapy, systemic therapies such as methotrexate, and more recently biologic therapies such as tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitors.
Category
Skin and connective tissue disease; Immune system disease
Brite
Human diseases [BR:br08402]
 Skin diseases
  Skin and soft tissue diseases
   H01656  Psoriasis
Human diseases in ICD-11 classification [BR:br08403]
 14 Diseases of the skin
  Inflammatory dermatoses
   Papulosquamous dermatoses
    EA90  Psoriasis
     H01656  Psoriasis
BRITE hierarchy
Gene
(PSORS1) HLA-C [HSA:3107] [KO:K06751]
(PSORS2) CARD14 [HSA:79092] [KO:K20913]
(PSORS13) TRAF3IP2 [HSA:10758] [KO:K21124]
(PSORS14) IL36RN [HSA:26525] [KO:K05483]
(PSORS15) AP1S3 [HSA:130340] [KO:K12395]
Drug
Dexamethasone sodium phosphate [DR:D00975]
Hydrocortisone [DR:D00088]
Prednisolone [DR:D00472]
Betamethasone dipropionate [DR:D01637]
Calcitriol [DR:D00129]
Anthralin [DR:D00233]
Methoxsalen [DR:D00139]
Calcipotriene [DR:D01125]
Calcipotriol hydrate [DR:D10198]
Tazarotene [DR:D01132]
Calcipotriene and betamethasone dipropionate [DR:D10534]
Acitretin [DR:D02754]
Methylprednisolone [DR:D00407]
Desoximetasone [DR:D03697]
Halobetasol propionate [DR:D04409]
Clobetasol propionate [DR:D01272]
Corticotropin [DR:D00146]
Cortisone acetate [DR:D00973]
Methotrexate [DR:D00142]
Methotrexate sodium [DR:D02115]
Tofacitinib citrate [DR:D09783]
Apremilast [DR:D08860]
Etanercept [DR:D00742]
Infliximab [DR:D02598]
Adalimumab [DR:D02597]
Ustekinumab [DR:D09214]
Secukinumab [DR:D09967]
Brodalumab [DR:D10061]
Ixekizumab [DR:D10071]
Guselkumab [DR:D10438]
Tildrakizumab [DR:D10400]
Cyclosporine [DR:D00184]
Risankizumab [DR:D11052]
Other DBs
ICD-11: EA90
ICD-10: L40
MeSH: D011565
OMIM: 177900 602723 614070 614204 616106
Reference
  Authors
Garg T, Rath G, Goyal AK
  Title
Nanotechnological approaches for the effective management of psoriasis.
  Journal
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol 44:1374-82 (2016)
DOI:10.3109/21691401.2015.1037885
Reference
  Authors
Weigle N, McBane S
  Title
Psoriasis.
  Journal
Am Fam Physician 87:626-33 (2013)
Reference
PMID:24350319 (description, drug)
  Authors
Burfield L, Burden AD
  Title
Psoriasis.
  Journal
J R Coll Physicians Edinb 43:334-8; quiz 339 (2013)
DOI:10.4997/JRCPE.2013.414
Reference
PMID:15708945 (drug)
  Authors
Lebwohl M, Ting PT, Koo JY
  Title
Psoriasis treatment: traditional therapy.
  Journal
Ann Rheum Dis 64 Suppl 2:ii83-6 (2005)
DOI:10.1136/ard.2004.030791
Reference
  Authors
Limaye K
  Title
Psoriasis: an overview and update.
  Journal
Nurse Pract 40:23-6 (2015)
DOI:10.1097/01.NPR.0000453651.30695.43
Reference
  Authors
Asumalahti K, Laitinen T, Itkonen-Vatjus R, Lokki ML, Suomela S, Snellman E, Saarialho-Kere U, Kere J
  Title
A candidate gene for psoriasis near HLA-C, HCR (Pg8), is highly polymorphic with a disease-associated susceptibility allele.
  Journal
Hum Mol Genet 9:1533-42 (2000)
DOI:10.1093/hmg/9.10.1533
Reference
  Authors
Jordan CT, Cao L, Roberson ED, Pierson KC, Yang CF, Joyce CE, Ryan C, Duan S, Helms CA, Liu Y, Chen Y, McBride AA, Hwu WL, Wu JY, Chen YT, Menter A, Goldbach-Mansky R, Lowes MA, Bowcock AM
  Title
PSORS2 is due to mutations in CARD14.
  Journal
Am J Hum Genet 90:784-95 (2012)
DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2012.03.012
Reference
  Authors
Huffmeier U, Uebe S, Ekici AB, Bowes J, Giardina E, Korendowych E, Juneblad K, Apel M, McManus R, Ho P, Bruce IN, Ryan AW, Behrens F, Lascorz J, Bohm B, Traupe H, Lohmann J, Gieger C, Wichmann HE, Herold C, Steffens M, Klareskog L, Wienker TF, Fitzgerald O, Alenius GM, McHugh NJ, Novelli G, Burkhardt H, Barton A, Reis A
  Title
Common variants at TRAF3IP2 are associated with susceptibility to psoriatic arthritis and psoriasis.
  Journal
Nat Genet 42:996-9 (2010)
DOI:10.1038/ng.688
Reference
  Authors
Farooq M, Nakai H, Fujimoto A, Fujikawa H, Matsuyama A, Kariya N, Aizawa A, Fujiwara H, Ito M, Shimomura Y
  Title
Mutation analysis of the IL36RN gene in 14 Japanese patients with generalized pustular psoriasis.
  Journal
Hum Mutat 34:176-83 (2013)
DOI:10.1002/humu.22203
Reference
  Authors
Setta-Kaffetzi N, Simpson MA, Navarini AA, Patel VM, Lu HC, Allen MH, Duckworth M, Bachelez H, Burden AD, Choon SE, Griffiths CE, Kirby B, Kolios A, Seyger MM, Prins C, Smahi A, Trembath RC, Fraternali F, Smith CH, Barker JN, Capon F
  Title
AP1S3 mutations are associated with pustular psoriasis and impaired Toll-like receptor 3 trafficking.
  Journal
Am J Hum Genet 94:790-7 (2014)
DOI:10.1016/j.ajhg.2014.04.005

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