KEGG   ENZYME: 1.1.1.21
Entry
EC 1.1.1.21                 Enzyme                                 

Name
aldose reductase;
polyol dehydrogenase (NADP+);
ALR2;
alditol:NADP+ oxidoreductase;
alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase;
NADPH-aldopentose reductase;
NADPH-aldose reductase;
aldehyde reductase (misleading)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-OH group of donors;
With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
Sysname
alditol:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H + H+ [RN:R02819 R02820]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
alditol [CPD:C00717];
NAD+ [CPD:C00003];
NADP+ [CPD:C00006]
Product
aldose [CPD:C01370];
NADH [CPD:C00004];
NADPH [CPD:C00005];
H+ [CPD:C00080]
Comment
Has wide specificity.
History
EC 1.1.1.21 created 1961 (EC 1.1.1.139 created 1972, incorporated 1978), modified 2019
Pathway
ec00040  Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
ec00051  Fructose and mannose metabolism
ec00052  Galactose metabolism
ec00561  Glycerolipid metabolism
ec00790  Folate biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K00011  aldehyde reductase
Genes
HSA: 231(AKR1B1) 57016(AKR1B10)
PTR: 463867(AKR1B10) 736853(AKR1B15) 737737(AKR1B1)
PPS: 100967410(AKR1B15) 100975756(AKR1B10) 100996067(AKR1B1)
GGO: 101144124(AKR1B1) 101145822(AKR1B10) 115935241
PON: 100444840(AKR1B1) 100445201(AKR1B10) 100445574
NLE: 100585224(AKR1B1) 100585902(AKR1B10)
MCC: 106996453 705957(AKR1B1) 706528 706646 713150
MCF: 101865018 101926277(AKR1B1) 102120093 102121104 102121743 102122400 102122997(AKR1B10)
CSAB: 103226928(AKR1B1) 103226929 103226931 103226932
RRO: 104657859 104657860 104657861 104657863(AKR1B1)
RBB: 108515792(AKR1B1) 108539216(AKR1B10)
CJC: 100387030(AKR1B10) 100387387(AKR1B1)
SBQ: 101031103(AKR1B1) 101045366
MMU: 11677(Akr1b3) 11997(Akr1b7) 14187(Akr1b8) 67861(Akr1b10)
MCAL: 110295915(Akr1b10) 110295916 110296013(Akr1b1)
RNO: 116463(Akr1b7) 24192(Akr1b1) 286921(Akr1b8) 296972(Akr1b10)
CGE: 100689318(Akr1b8) 100751272(Akr1b1) 100757262 100758120
NGI: 103736560(Akr1b10) 103736561(Akr1b1)
HGL: 101705915 101706493(Akr1b10) 101720124(Akr1b1)
OCU: 100009122(AKR1B1) 100341518(AKR1B10)
TUP: 102468970 102469817 102494851(AKR1B1) 102495669(AKR1B10)
CFA: 607537(AKR1B1)
VVP: 112928987(AKR1B1)
AML: 100479370(AKR1B1)
UMR: 103678252(AKR1B1)
UAH: 113264345(AKR1B1)
ORO: 101366220(AKR1B1)
ELK: 111152013
FCA: 101095406(AKR1B1)
PTG: 102953851(AKR1B1)
PPAD: 109269032(AKR1B1)
AJU: 106975707
BTA: 317748(AKR1B1) 525193(AKR1B10) 616199
BOM: 102283791(AKR1B1) 102284069(AKR1B10) 102286471
BIU: 109557651(AKR1B1) 109557652(AKR1B10)
BBUB: 102392991(AKR1B1) 102402798(AKR1B10)
CHX: 102187190(AKR1B1) 102187646(AKR1B10)
OAS: 101107697 101120824(AKR1B1)
SSC: 396816(AKR1B1)
CFR: 102513557(AKR1B1)
CDK: 105085402(AKR1B1)
BACU: 103010471(AKR1B1)
LVE: 103088864(AKR1B1)
OOR: 101287897(AKR1B1)
DLE: 111178199(AKR1B1)
PCAD: 102985317(AKR1B1)
ECB: 100065145(AKR1B1)
EPZ: 103551318(AKR1B1)
EAI: 106830010(AKR1B1)
MYB: 102254354(AKR1B10) 102256742(AKR1B1)
MYD: 102753092(AKR1B1) 102772161(AKR1B10)
MNA: 107544356 107544458(AKR1B10)
HAI: 109389373(AKR1B1)
DRO: 112297391 112299891(AKR1B1)
PALE: 102887071(AKR1B1)
MJV: 108400068(AKR1B1)
MDO: 100021757(AKR1B1)
SHR: 100923275
PCW: 110219188(AKR1B1)
GGA: 395338(AKR1B10L2) 418169(AKR1B10L1) 418170(AKR1B10L3) 418171(AKR1E2) 425137(AKR1B1L) 772271(AKR1B10L4)
AMJ: 102567910 102569073(AKR1B1)
PVT: 110088824
PBI: 103050065
PMUR: 107294356
TSR: 106551076
PMUA: 114605229
GJA: 107108024
XLA: 108704367(akr1b1.L) 398904(akr1b1.S)
XTR: 496546(akr1b1)
NPR: 108789955(AKR1B1)
DRE: 553452(akr1b1.2)
SGH: 107587162
IPU: 100528852(akr1b1)
AMEX: 103035339
EEE: 113587784
TRU: 101070998
LCO: 109138870
NCC: 104960079
MZE: 101477205
ONL: 100700843
OLA: 101167259
XMA: 102229660
XCO: 114161093
PRET: 103459462
CVG: 107098428
NFU: 107384342
KMR: 108240995(akr1b1)
ALIM: 106523520
AOCE: 111563385
CSEM: 107988900
POV: 109632879
LCF: 108887379
SDU: 111224606
SLAL: 111663697
HCQ: 109523886
BPEC: 110155854
MALB: 109968263
SASA: 106576053 106609240(ALDR)
ELS: 105029080
SFM: 108920995
LCM: 102361295(AKR1B1)
DME: Dmel_CG10638(CG10638) Dmel_CG10863(CG10863) Dmel_CG12766(CG12766) Dmel_CG40064(ARY) Dmel_CG6083(CG6083) Dmel_CG6084(Akr1B) Dmel_CG9436(CG9436)
DSI: Dsimw501_GD10303(Dsim_GD10303) Dsimw501_GD12788(Dsim_GD12788) Dsimw501_GD12789(Dsim_GD12789) Dsimw501_GD13308(Dsim_GD13308) Dsimw501_GD13309(Dsim_GD13309)
BIM: 100748867
BTER: 100652140
OBB: 114883145
BMOR: 101736565
BMAN: 114248479
PMAC: 106709371
HAW: 110380546
DNX: 107169883
CEL: CELE_Y39G8B.1(Y39G8B.1)
CBR: CBG20740
BMY: Bm1_43535
SHX: MS3_00286
DDI: DDB_G0268058(alrC) DDB_G0285053(alrB) DDB_G0293850(alrA)
EHI: EHI_029620(466.t00004)
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:4216364]
  Authors
Attwood MA, Doughty CC.
  Title
Purification and properties of calf liver aldose reductase.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 370:358-68 (1974)
DOI:10.1016/0005-2744(74)90097-7
Reference
2  [PMID:36151]
  Authors
Boghosian RA, McGuinness ET.
  Title
Affinity purification and properties of porcine brain aldose reductase.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 567:278-86 (1979)
DOI:10.1016/0005-2744(79)90113-X
Reference
3  [PMID:14401390]
  Authors
HERS HG.
  Title
[Aldose reductase.]
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 37:120-6 (1960)
DOI:10.1016/0006-3002(60)90085-8
Reference
4  [PMID:4381350]
  Authors
Scher BM, Horecker BL.
  Title
Pentose metabolism in Candida. 3. The triphosphopyridine nucleotide-specific polyol dehydrogenase of Candida utilis.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 116:117-28 (1966)
DOI:10.1016/0003-9861(66)90020-8
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.1.1.21
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.1.1.21
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.1.1.21
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.1.1.21
CAS: 9028-31-3

DBGET integrated database retrieval system