KEGG   ENZYME: 1.1.1.21
Entry
EC 1.1.1.21                 Enzyme                                 
Name
aldose reductase;
polyol dehydrogenase (NADP+);
ALR2;
alditol:NADP+ oxidoreductase;
alditol:NADP+ 1-oxidoreductase;
NADPH-aldopentose reductase;
NADPH-aldose reductase;
aldehyde reductase (misleading)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-OH group of donors;
With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
Sysname
alditol:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
alditol + NAD(P)+ = aldose + NAD(P)H + H+ [RN:R02819 R02820]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
alditol [CPD:C00717];
NAD+ [CPD:C00003];
NADP+ [CPD:C00006]
Product
aldose [CPD:C01370];
NADH [CPD:C00004];
NADPH [CPD:C00005];
H+ [CPD:C00080]
Comment
Has wide specificity.
History
EC 1.1.1.21 created 1961 (EC 1.1.1.139 created 1972, incorporated 1978), modified 2019
Pathway
ec00040  Pentose and glucuronate interconversions
ec00051  Fructose and mannose metabolism
ec00052  Galactose metabolism
ec00561  Glycerolipid metabolism
ec00790  Folate biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K00011  aldehyde reductase
Genes
HSA231(AKR1B1) 57016(AKR1B10)
PTR463867(AKR1B10) 736853(AKR1B15) 737737(AKR1B1)
PPS100975756(AKR1B10) 100996067(AKR1B1)
GGO101144124(AKR1B1) 101145822(AKR1B10) 115935241
PON100444840(AKR1B1) 100445201(AKR1B10) 100445574
NLE100585224(AKR1B1) 100585902(AKR1B10)
MCC106996453 705957(AKR1B1) 706528 706646 713150
MCF101865018 101926277(AKR1B1) 102122997
CSAB103226928(AKR1B1) 103226929 103226931 103226932
CATY105571953 105571956(AKR1B1) 105589604 105589605 105589607 105589609
PANU101021219(AKR1B1) 101021836(AKR1B10)
TGE112620015 112620516(AKR1B1) 112621549 112621550 112621830 112621838
RRO104657859 104657860 104657861 104657863(AKR1B1)
RBB108515792(AKR1B1) 108539216(AKR1B10)
TFN117072330(AKR1B1) 117072648(AKR1B10)
PTEH111524773 111539835 113223625
CJC100387030(AKR1B10) 100387387(AKR1B1)
SBQ101031103(AKR1B1) 101045366
CSYR103252298(AKR1B1) 103252299(AKR1B10)
MMUR105857397 105857399 105860191 105860192
LCAT123625751 123647301 123647621
OGA100957227 100962268
MMU11677(Akr1b3) 11997(Akr1b7) 14187(Akr1b8) 67861(Akr1b10)
MCAL110295915(Akr1b10) 110295916 110296013(Akr1b1)
MPAH110315099(Akr1b1) 110315313 110315329 110315340 110330299
RNO116463(Akr1b7) 24192(Akr1b1) 286921(Akr1b8) 296972(Akr1b10)
MCOC116098701(Akr1b1) 116098704 116098705 116098706
MUN110547518(Akr1b1) 110547519 110547521 110547527
CGE100689318(Akr1b8) 100751272(Akr1b1) 100757262 100758120
MAUA101824903(Akr1b10) 101840308 101840583(Akr1b10) 110343175
PLEU114691033 114691034 114691036 114691037 114691039
MORG121434395 121435526 121450442 121463349 121463354 121463520 121463521 121463522 121463523
AAMP119807592 119807788 119807789 119807790 119807815
NGI103736560(Akr1b10) 103736561(Akr1b1)
HGL101705915 101706493(Akr1b10) 101720124(Akr1b1)
CPOC100718017(Akr1b1) 100723118 100725498
CCAN109691828 109691830(Akr1b1) 109702019
DORD105989527 105989580(Akr1b1)
DSP122099550 122099554 122099557
NCAR124976563 124990686 124991153 124993172
OCU100009122(AKR1B1) 100341518(AKR1B10)
OPI101520707(AKR1B1) 101521113(AKR1B10)
TUP102468970 102469817 102494851(AKR1B1) 102495669(AKR1B10)
CFA607537(AKR1B1)
CLUD112675135(AKR1B1)
VVP112928987(AKR1B1)
VLG121475158(AKR1B1)
AML100479370(AKR1B1)
UMR103678252(AKR1B1)
UAH113264345(AKR1B1)
UAR123788933(AKR1B1)
ELK111152013
LLV125081027
MPUF101675142(AKR1B1)
ORO101366220(AKR1B1)
EJU114211714(AKR1B1)
ZCA113911715(AKR1B1) 113916270
MLX118021111(AKR1B1)
FCA101095406(AKR1B1)
PYU121028304(AKR1B1)
PBG122488304(AKR1B1)
PTG102953851(AKR1B1)
PPAD109269032(AKR1B1)
AJU106975707
HHV120238890(AKR1B1)
BTA317748(AKR1B1) 525193(AKR1B10) 616199
BOM102283791(AKR1B1) 102284069(AKR1B10) 102286471
BIU109557651(AKR1B1) 109557652(AKR1B10)
BBUB102392991(AKR1B1) 102402798
CHX102187190(AKR1B1) 102187646
OAS101107697 101120824(AKR1B1)
ODA120878221
CCAD122435861 122438662(AKR1B1) 122438664(AKR1B10)
SSC396816(AKR1B1)
CFR102513557(AKR1B1)
CBAI105063065(AKR1B1)
CDK105085402(AKR1B1)
VPC102540543
BACU103010471(AKR1B1)
LVE103088864(AKR1B1)
OOR101287897(AKR1B1)
DLE111178199(AKR1B1)
PCAD102985317(AKR1B1)
PSIU116759121 116759585
ECB100065145(AKR1B1)
EPZ103551318(AKR1B1)
EAI106830010(AKR1B1)
MYB102254354(AKR1B10) 102256742(AKR1B1)
MYD102753092(AKR1B1) 102772161(AKR1B10)
MMYO118665738(AKR1B10) 118666385(AKR1B1)
MLF102433656(AKR1B1) 102437578(AKR1B10)
MNA107544356 107544458(AKR1B10)
PKL118713063(AKR1B1)
HAI109389373(AKR1B1)
DRO112297391 112299891(AKR1B1)
SHON118989130(AKR1B1)
AJM119060061 119061669 119064277(AKR1B1)
PDIC114507702(AKR1B1)
PHAS123829754(AKR1B1)
MMF118619900(AKR1B1)
RFQ117018317(AKR1B1)
PALE102887071(AKR1B1)
PGIG120601051(AKR1B1)
PVP105291641(AKR1B1)
RAY107510482 107512775 107512840
MJV108400068(AKR1B1)
TOD119247201(AKR1B1) 119247208
SARA101557794(AKR1B10) 101558060(AKR1B1)
LAV100673621 100674191 100676373
DNM101419884 101428346
MDO100021757(AKR1B1)
GAS123231579 123249100 123250654(AKR1B1)
SHR100923275
PCW110219188(AKR1B1)
OAA100075884 100080918
GGA395338(AKR1B10L2) 418169(AKR1B10L1) 418170(AKR1B10L3) 418171(AKR1E2) 425137(AKR1B1L) 772271(AKR1B10L4)
PCOC116226880(AKR1B1) 116226881 116226886
MGP100545668 100545821 100546539 116216167
CJO107314935 107314940 107314963
NMEL110395690 110395697 110395703 110395770
APLA101803476 101804508 113839620 113839621
ACYG106030914 106030918 106030919
AFUL116488494 116494270 116494278 116499104
TGU100190001 100218307 100228819 100231722
LSR110482584 110482585 110482590 110482617 110482638
SCAN103820473 103820474 103820475 103820479 103820526
PMOA120501564 120501565 120501706 120501716
OTC121332751 121332756 121332757 121332758 121332913 121332946 121348227
PRUF121362684 121362699 121362700 121362701 121362702 121362740
GFR102032844 102033009 102033170 102037110 102037276 102037443
FAB101816737 101817845 101818037 101818225 101818573
PHI102105938 102107917 102108106(AKR1B1) 102108287 102108600 102108775
PMAJ107204385 107204386 107204387 107204388 107204389 107204566
CCAE111928118 111928140 111928150 111928163
CCW104692255 104692256 104692258 104692294 104692295
CBRC103624702 103624703 103624704 103624707 103624731
ETL114061015 114066469 114066470 114066471 114066473
ZAB102067243 102068432 102068611 102069042 113458543
FPG101917917 101918099 101918278
CLV102085112 102086315 102088238
EGZ104134389 104134390 104135078
NNI104017941 104017961 104020199 104020240
PLET104615085 104620628 104621793 104622611 104623666 104623668
PCRI104026696 104028672 104033296 104038548
ACUN113488115 113488124
TALA104363534 104368191 122152380 122153699
PADL103924353 103924490 103924491
ACHC115352325 115352326 115352327 115352329
HALD104310437 104310471 104311523 104325370 104325371
CCRI104155586 104162060 104162511 104165529 104167701
CSTI104549638 104549971
EHS104502953 104503450 104504983 104507533
CMAC104473151 104473174 104474650 104475825 104477485
FGA104069388 104069389 104073477 104076866 104084042
GSTE104253234 104254677 104257203 104257205 104260020 104261792
LDI104340006 104348355 104348362 104353828 104354725
MNB103769919 103772082 103776163
OHA104337123 104337134 104337135 104337136
AAM106488285 106488287 106488362 106488549 106488550 106488552
AROW112968275 112968276 112968277 112968278 112968283 112968321
NPD112945496 112945499 112945503 112958311
DNE112993398 112993399 112993400 112993401 112993407
ASN102372371 102373549
AMJ102567910 102569073(AKR1B1)
CPOO109316062 109316434 109316439 109316440
GGN109296252 109296257
PSS102447223 102448447
CMY102945034 102947668
CPIC101941450 101945074
TST117882871 117882887 117882897
CABI116831732 116835616(AKR1B1) 116837052
MRV120399260 120408529 120408610(AKR1B1) 120408614
ACS100564587 100564788
PVT110088824
SUND121930486 121930487 121930488 121930489
PBI103050065
PMUR107294356
TSR106551076
PGUT117655756
VKO123017743 123036401
PMUA114605229
ZVI118090994 118091214
GJA107108024 107120169
STOW125434742 125435128 125435911
XLA108704367(akr1b1.L) 398904(akr1b1.S)
XTR496546(akr1b1)
NPR108789955(AKR1B1)
RTEM120932851 120932854
BBUF121005406
BGAR122928405 122928562
DRE553452(akr1b1.2)
SRX107725652 107729832
SANH107676933 107690495
SGH107587162
CAUA113047777 113047832 113060692 113063781
PPRM120476864(akr1b1.2)
MAMB125244715(akr1b1.2)
IPU100528852(akr1b1.2)
SMEO124400938
TFD113651589(akr1b1.2)
AMEX103035339
EEE113587784
TRU101070998
LCO109138870
NCC104960079
CGOB115028391
ELY117248943(akr1b1.2)
EFO125882621
PLEP121961125 121961126 121961230
SLUC116039839(akr1b1.2)
ECRA117938468
PFLV114549927
GAT120818001(akr1b1.2)
PPUG119211081
MSAM119918239 119918242(akr1b1.2) 119918243(akr1b1.1)
CUD121505679(akr1b1.2)
ALAT119032787(akr1b1.2)
MZE101477205
ONL100700843
OAU116328721 116328727
OLA101167259
OML112153991
XMA102229660
XCO114161093
XHE116736941
PRET103459462
PFOR103129496
PLAI106955436
PMEI106905517
GAF122826708
CVG107098428
CTUL119795742
GMU124883054
NFU107384342
KMR108240995
ALIM106523520
NWH119428179
AOCE111563385
MCEP125000062 125000064 125000065
CSEM103382877 107988900
POV109632879
SSEN122765867(akr1b1.2)
HHIP117757393
HSP118101482
LCF108887379
SDU111224606
SLAL111663697
XGL120801731(akr1b1.2) 120801740(akr1b1.1)
HCQ109523886
BPEC110155854
MALB109968263
BSPL114862618 114862620
SASA106576053 106609240(ALDR)
OTW112214368 112217159
OMY110490236 110500234
OGO123994668
ONE115106928 115133187
SALP111950663 111951551
SNH120049874
CCLU121543685 121546254
ELS105029080
SFM108920995 108931984
PKI111847035 111859027
AANG118232186 118232188
LOC102683151 102692142 102694949
PSPA121319590 121319591
ARUT117416154 117416239
LCM102361295(AKR1B1)
BFO118411524 118418498 118418516 118430480 118430789 118431052
BBEL109473888
CIN100176226 100176557 100187155
SCLV120325739 120325976 120325977 120326036 120326037 120326057 120326999 120328276 120331125 120332453 120338109 120338793 120339657 120339723 120340604 120341271 120344572
SPU576680 579432 587781
DMEDmel_CG10638(CG10638) Dmel_CG10863(CG10863) Dmel_CG12766(CG12766) Dmel_CG40064(ARY) Dmel_CG6083(CG6083) Dmel_CG6084(Akr1B) Dmel_CG9436(CG9436)
DER26526251 6543344 6544726 6544727 6546411 6546412
DSE6605304 6605305 6607890 6610683 6610684
DSIDsimw501_GD10303(Dsim_GD10303) Dsimw501_GD12788(Dsim_GD12788) Dsimw501_GD12789(Dsim_GD12789) Dsimw501_GD13308(Dsim_GD13308) Dsimw501_GD13309(Dsim_GD13309)
DYADyak_GE14627 Dyak_GE20194 Dyak_GE20195 Dyak_GE20663 Dyak_GE20664 Dyak_GE24510
DAN6493122 6496626 6507162 6507163
DSR110181229 110181252 110183645 110189344
DPO4803407 4812082 4812913 4813333 6899618 6900480
DPE6590279 6598863 6598881 6600993 6602920
DMN108151337 108153378 108153403 108153602 108159935 117189226
DWI6638528 6639186 6639187 6643337
DGR6556641 6557866 6557871 6557875 6559822
DMODmoj_GI11588 Dmoj_GI11589 Dmoj_GI12765 Dmoj_GI13068 Dmoj_GI20232
DAZ108613040 108613175 108613176 108616577
DNV108650974 108650975 108651158 108653808
DHE111592768 111592790 111595047 111596846 111601469
DVI6623732 6623736 6624903 6636923
CCAT101451313 101451502 101451664 101452158 101455024
BOD106615406 106619686 106619687 106619689 118680544
MDE101894281 101901824
SCAC106093586 106093587 106094588 106095050
LCQ111676631 111676645 111676646 111682668 111685343
LSQ119604868 119609315 119609318 119609319 119612997 119612998
HIS119648739 119648764 119649235 119649454 119649550 119649551 119649552 119649553 119649554 119649555 119649556 119649557 119649558 119649744 119649999 119650038 119650039 119650104 119652612
AGAAgaP_AGAP010250 AgaP_AGAP011050 AgaP_AGAP011051 AgaP_AGAP011052 AgaP_AGAP011053 AgaP_AGAP011066 AgaP_AGAP011068 AgaP_AGAP012851
ACOZ120954657 120954982 120955027 120955028 120955029 120955030 120959702
AARA120899525 120899526 120899527 120899529 120899530 120900128 120903032
ASTE118503756 118503768 118503769 118503770 118503771 118503778 118510997
AAG5564109 5564116 5564118 5564124 5564130 5564133 5565864
AALB109407629 109407632 109421056 109425949 109425952 109425953 109425955 115256953
CQUCpipJ_CPIJ003374 CpipJ_CPIJ003391 CpipJ_CPIJ003392 CpipJ_CPIJ003393 CpipJ_CPIJ003394 CpipJ_CPIJ003395 CpipJ_CPIJ003396 CpipJ_CPIJ003397 CpipJ_CPIJ007370
CPII120419472 120427684 120428922 120428923 120428924 120428925 120428926 120428927 120431321
CNS116336672 116336673 116337997 116339650 116339697 116340713 116340715 116341859 116347136 116347138 116348605 116352184
BCOO119070997 119074433 119074470 119074821 119075198 119075240 119076700 119077154 119077211 119078263 119079424 119080757 119080950 119082625 119082627 119082628 119082631 119083629 119084595 119085842 119085873
AME551968 552018
ACER107996254 107996296 107996297
ALAB122713939 122714012
BIM100748867
BBIF117214809 117214834
BVK117240154 117240155
BVAN117164404 117164406
BTER100652140
BPYO122575592 122575593 122575595
OBB114883145
MGEN117219697 117219698 117222803
NMEA116431577
CGIG122405394 122405395 122405396
FEX115239771
PFUC122515108 122515311
VPS122635909 122636184
NVI100120500 100120526 100120551 100120576 100678482 100678521
TPRE106656070 106656109 106656241 106656242 106656243 106656244 106659593
MDL103572775 103572779
CGLO123267051 123267052 123267053
FAS105264269 105269161 105273356 105273358 105273359
DAM107038055 107038120 107038121 107039225 107039235 107044348 107044349 107044350
AGIF122848574 122848576 122848578
LHT122497798 122497799 122497963 122497964 122512514
CCIN107271433 107271434 107271435
TCA657943 658019 658097
SOY115881877 115886824 115886829 115886837 115886860 115886882
CSET123309321 123314955 123315233 123319335
AGB108903570 108903579 108903590 108903619 108903791 108903801 108903987 108904008 108907773 108909030
LDC111517542 111517546 111517554 111517556 111517557
APLN108733946 108733948 108737105 108737117 108737125 108737913 108737914 108738738 108738739 108740565 108740566 108740572 108745130 112905941 112906313
PPYR116161997 116167991 116174079 116174080 116174279 116174280 116177506
OTU111419681 111425069 111426638
BMOR101736565
BMAN114248479
MSEX115451446 115451940 119192049
DPLKGM_215024
BANY112056017 112056249 112057205
PMAC106709371
PPOT106103311 106107397
PXU106122829 106122883
PRAP110995022 110996123
ZCE119832373 119838915 119838931
HAW110377421 110380546
HZE124633195 124639272 124639282 124639813 124643328 124644060 124644088
TNL113492328
SLIU111351324 111351422 111359427
OFU114352465 114353317 114361442 114362328
PXY105389975
API100164695 100165768
DNX107169883
AGS114124075 114124076
RMD113550955 113552119
DCI103524884 103524897
HHAL106688118 106688122 106690780
NLU111053850 120351145
PHUPhum_PHUM282300 Phum_PHUM335220
FOC113205241 113211767 113211961 113214979
TPAL117647499 117647548
ZNE110840010
CSEC111866836 111866841 111869420 111869421 111869422 111869434 111869436
DMK116918337 116931898 116932375
PJA122262777
PCHN125044752
PCLA123764272 123764273
HAZT108668888 108679633
PPOI119092944 119092945 119092948 119109419
ISCIscW_ISCW002128
DSV119436631 119456092 119465116
RSAN119387062 119393358 119396249
RMP119161267 119162205 119168223 119171961
VDE111255263
VJA111260139
DPTE113790976
DFR124494604 124500278
SDM118187337
CELCELE_Y39G8B.1(Y39G8B.1)
CBRCBG_20740
BGT106050775
GAE121380813 121381009 121383007
HRF124116942 124138055 124138137 124143409 124146848 124147209
HRJ124256117 124256119 124258499 124259165 124259169 124264635 124267536 124267537 124267538 124268709
CRG105330016 117681075
PMAX117339330 117339332 117339853 117340092
MMER123536157
OSN115227293
SMMSmp_053220.1
SHXMS3_0017900
CSIN114274852
GSLGasu_34980
ECUECU01_0970
EINEint_010880
EHEEHEL_010850
EROEROM_010770
DDIDDB_G0268058(alrC) DDB_G0285053(alrB) DDB_G0293850(alrA)
DPPDICPUDRAFT_39352 DICPUDRAFT_92315
EHIEHI_029620(466.t00004)
EDIEDI_135530
BEQBEWA_028550
NGRNAEGRDRAFT_44884
TVATVAG_348390
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:4216364]
  Authors
Attwood MA, Doughty CC.
  Title
Purification and properties of calf liver aldose reductase.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 370:358-68 (1974)
DOI:10.1016/0005-2744(74)90097-7
Reference
2  [PMID:36151]
  Authors
Boghosian RA, McGuinness ET.
  Title
Affinity purification and properties of porcine brain aldose reductase.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 567:278-86 (1979)
DOI:10.1016/0005-2744(79)90113-X
Reference
3  [PMID:14401390]
  Authors
HERS HG.
  Title
[Aldose reductase.]
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 37:120-6 (1960)
DOI:10.1016/0006-3002(60)90085-8
Reference
4  [PMID:4381350]
  Authors
Scher BM, Horecker BL.
  Title
Pentose metabolism in Candida. 3. The triphosphopyridine nucleotide-specific polyol dehydrogenase of Candida utilis.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 116:117-28 (1966)
DOI:10.1016/0003-9861(66)90020-8
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.1.1.21
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.1.1.21
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.1.1.21
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.1.1.21
CAS: 9028-31-3

DBGET integrated database retrieval system