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Entry
EC 1.1.3.17                 Enzyme                                 

Name
choline oxidase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-OH group of donors;
With oxygen as acceptor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
choline:oxygen 1-oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
choline + 2 O2 + H2O = betaine + 2 H2O2 (overall reaction) [RN:R08212];
(1a) choline + O2 = betaine aldehyde + H2O2 [RN:R01022];
(1b) betaine aldehyde + O2 + H2O = betaine + H2O2 [RN:R08211]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
choline [CPD:C00114];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
betaine aldehyde [CPD:C00576]
Product
betaine [CPD:C00719];
H2O2 [CPD:C00027];
betaine aldehyde [CPD:C00576]
Comment
A flavoprotein (FAD). In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline into betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde into betaine. In plants, the first reaction is catalysed by EC 1.14.15.7, choline monooxygenase, whereas in animals and many bacteria, it is catalysed by either membrane-bound choline dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.99.1) or soluble choline oxidase (EC 1.1.3.17) [6]. The enzyme involved in the second step, EC 1.2.1.8, betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, appears to be the same in those plants, animals and bacteria that use two separate enzymes.
History
EC 1.1.3.17 created 1978, modified 2005, modified 2007
Pathway
ec00260  Glycine, serine and threonine metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K17755  choline oxidase
Genes
PAMI: JCM7686_pAMI1p088
MMC: Mmcs_2464
MKM: Mkms_2509
MJL: Mjls_2501
MDX: BTO20_10210
MGI: Mflv_3085
MSP: Mspyr1_24000
MCB: Mycch_3082
MGO: AFA91_30565
MVQ: MYVA_3361
CVA: CVAR_1534(betA1)
CTER: A606_06065
CGY: CGLY_08220(betA1)
CAMG: CAMM_03220
NCY: NOCYR_3120(codA)
RHB: NY08_1329
RFA: A3L23_04564(codA)
RHS: A3Q41_03707(codA)
GOR: KTR9_0772
GRU: GCWB2_03940(codA)
GOM: D7316_02647(codA_2)
TPR: Tpau_2794
SRT: Srot_2479
SGB: WQO_27655
SHY: SHJG_2834
SFI: SFUL_5923
STRE: GZL_02072
SLD: T261_1293
SRW: TUE45_01815(codA_1)
SNR: SNOUR_09290(codA)
SMAL: SMALA_6294
CMI: CMM_1950
ART: Arth_3743
AAU: AAur_0512
AAI: AARI_07270(codA)
GCR: GcLGCM259_0568(codA)
KRH: KRH_18100(betA)
LMOI: VV02_21505
BLIN: BLSMQ_2409
STRR: EKD16_09150(codA1)
SEN: SACE_5373
AOI: AORI_2600(betA)
AJA: AJAP_25825(codA)
AMYY: YIM_31165(codA)
PSEE: FRP1_06385
PSEH: XF36_16415
PAUT: Pdca_46070
ACTN: L083_4091
RXY: Rxyl_0758
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:599154]
  Authors
Ikuta S, Imamura S, Misaki H, Horiuti Y.
  Title
Purification and characterization of choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis.
  Journal
J Biochem (Tokyo) 82:1741-9 (1977)
DOI:10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a131872
Reference
2  [PMID:1987142]
  Authors
Rozwadowski KL, Khachatourians GG, Selvaraj G.
  Title
Choline oxidase, a catabolic enzyme in Arthrobacter pascens, facilitates adaptation to osmotic stress in Escherichia coli.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 173:472-8 (1991)
DOI:10.1128/JB.173.2.472-478.1991
Reference
3  [PMID:12795615]
  Authors
Rand T, Halkier T, Hansen OC.
  Title
Structural characterization and mapping of the covalently linked FAD cofactor in choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis.
  Journal
Biochemistry 42:7188-94 (2003)
DOI:10.1021/bi0274266
Reference
4  [PMID:15369826]
  Authors
Gadda G, Powell NL, Menon P.
  Title
The trimethylammonium headgroup of choline is a major determinant for substrate binding and specificity in choline oxidase.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 430:264-73 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2004.07.011
Reference
5  [PMID:15713082]
  Authors
Fan F, Gadda G.
  Title
On the catalytic mechanism of choline oxidase.
  Journal
J Am Chem Soc 127:2067-74 (2005)
DOI:10.1021/ja044541q
Reference
6  [PMID:12466265]
  Authors
Waditee R, Tanaka Y, Aoki K, Hibino T, Jikuya H, Takano J, Takabe T, Takabe T.
  Title
Isolation and functional characterization of N-methyltransferases that catalyze betaine synthesis from glycine in a halotolerant photosynthetic organism Aphanothece halophytica.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 278:4932-42 (2003)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M210970200
Reference
7  [PMID:14678796]
  Authors
Fan F, Ghanem M, Gadda G.
  Title
Cloning, sequence analysis, and purification of choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis: a bacterial enzyme involved in osmotic stress tolerance.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 421:149-58 (2004)
DOI:10.1016/j.abb.2003.10.003
  Sequence
Reference
8  [PMID:12637017]
  Authors
Gadda G.
  Title
Kinetic mechanism of choline oxidase from Arthrobacter globiformis.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1646:112-8 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S1570-9639(03)00003-7
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.1.3.17
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.1.3.17
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.1.3.17
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.1.3.17
CAS: 9028-67-5

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