A quinoprotein. In many bacteria, plants and animals, the osmoprotectant betaine is synthesized using different enzymes to catalyse the conversion of (1) choline into betaine aldehyde and (2) betaine aldehyde into betaine. In plants, the first reaction is catalysed by EC 184.108.40.206, choline monooxygenase, whereas in animals and many bacteria, it is catalysed by either membrane-bound choline dehydrogenase (EC 220.127.116.11) or soluble choline oxidase (EC 18.104.22.168) . The enzyme involved in the second step, EC 22.214.171.124, betaine-aldehyde dehydrogenase, appears to be the same in plants, animals and bacteria.
EC 126.96.36.199 created 1961, modified 1989, modified 2005