KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.13.239
Entry
EC 1.14.13.239              Enzyme                                 

Name
carnitine monooxygenase;
cntAB (gene names);
yeaWX (gene names)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With NADH or NADPH as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen into the other donor
Sysname
L-carnitine,NAD(P)H:oxygen oxidoreductase (trimethylamine-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
L-carnitine + NAD(P)H + H+ + O2 = (3R)-3-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoate + trimethylamine + NAD(P)+ + H2O [RN:R11875 R11911]
Reaction(KEGG)
R11875 R11911
Substrate
L-carnitine [CPD:C00318];
NADH [CPD:C00004];
NADPH [CPD:C00005];
H+ [CPD:C00080];
O2 [CPD:C00007]
Product
(3R)-3-hydroxy-4-oxobutanoate [CPD:C21761];
trimethylamine [CPD:C00565];
NAD+ [CPD:C00003];
NADP+ [CPD:C00006];
H2O [CPD:C00001]
Comment
The bacterial enzyme is a complex consisting of a reductase and an oxygenase components. The reductase subunit contains a flavin and a plant-type ferredoxin [2Fe-2S] cluster, while the oxygenase subunit is a Rieske-type protein in which a [2Fe-2S] cluster is coordinated by two histidine and two cysteine residues.
History
EC 1.14.13.239 created 2017
Orthology
K22443  carnitine monooxygenase subunit
K22444  carnitine monooxygenase subunit
Genes
ECO: b1802(yeaW) b1803(yeaX)
ECJ: JW1792(yeaX) JW5294(yeaW)
ECD: ECDH10B_1940(yeaW) ECDH10B_1941(yeaX)
EBW: BWG_1615(yeaW) BWG_1616(yeaX)
ECOK: ECMDS42_1476(yeaW) ECMDS42_1477(yeaX)
ECE: Z2845(yeaW) Z2846(yeaX)
ECS: ECs2511 ECs2512
ECF: ECH74115_2528 ECH74115_2529
ETW: ECSP_2374(yeaW) ECSP_2375(yeaX)
ELX: CDCO157_2345 CDCO157_2346
EOI: ECO111_2308(yeaW) ECO111_2309(yeaX)
EOJ: ECO26_2571(yeaW) ECO26_2572(yeaX)
EOH: ECO103_1991(yeaW) ECO103_1992(yeaX)
ECOO: ECRM13514_2305(yeaW) ECRM13514_2306(yeaX)
ECOH: ECRM13516_2207(yeaW) ECRM13516_2208(yeaX)
ECK: EC55989_1975(yeaW) EC55989_1976(yeaX)
EOK: G2583_2249(yeaW) G2583_2250(yeaX)
ECR: ECIAI1_1871(yeaW) ECIAI1_1872(yeaX)
EUM: ECUMN_2094(yeaW) ECUMN_2095(yeaX)
ECT: ECIAI39_1250(yeaX) ECIAI39_1251(yeaW)
EOC: CE10_2084(yeaW) CE10_2085(yeaX)
EBR: ECB_01772(yeaW) ECB_01773(yeaX)
EBL: ECD_01772(yeaW) ECD_01773(yeaX)
EBE: B21_01760(yeaW) B21_01761(yeaX)
EKF: KO11_13700(yeaX) KO11_13705(yeaW)
ELW: ECW_m1971(yeaW) ECW_m1972(yeaX)
ELL: WFL_09685(yeaW) WFL_09690(yeaX)
ELP: P12B_c1278(yeaX) P12B_c1279(yeaW)
ESZ: FEM44_23900(yeaW) FEM44_23905(yeaX)
SFL: SF1425(yeaX)
SFX: S1540(yeaX)
SFV: SFV_1426(yeaX) SFV_1427
SFE: SFxv_1613(yeaX) SFxv_1614(yeaW)
SFT: NCTC1_01526(ophA1) NCTC1_01527(yeaW)
SSN: SSON_1358(yeaX) SSON_1359(yeaW)
SBO: SBO_1285(yeaX) SBO_1286(yeaW)
SDY: SDY_1706(yeaW) SDY_1707(yeaX)
KPR: KPR_3509(yeaW) KPR_3512(xeaX)
KPX: PMK1_03351(ophA1) PMK1_03353(cbdA_1)
KPNK: BN49_2098(xeaX) BN49_2100(yeaW)
EBT: EBL_c14120(yeaW) EBL_c14130(yeaxA)
YPK: y1695
YPH: YPC_1634
YPM: YP_2307(hmp1) YP_2308(hcaA11)
SMW: SMWW4_v1c40530(yeaW) SMWW4_v1c40550(yeaX)
XNE: XNC1_0564(yeaW) XNC1_0567(yeaX)
XNM: XNC2_0552(yeaW) XNC2_0555(yeaX)
PRG: RB151_006210(antA) RB151_006230(pobB)
PHEI: NCTC12003_00623(antA) NCTC12003_00625(ophA1)
XCP: XCR_2204
XCV: XCV2007
XAX: XACM_1984
XOO: XOO2596(HcaE)
XOR: XOC_2359
VTA: A3368(yeaW) A3370(yeaX)
PCQ: PcP3B5_28790(antA_2) PcP3B5_38790(pobB_4) PcP3B5_38810(antA_4)
PPUN: PP4_21080(yeaX) PP4_21090(yeaW)
PKC: PKB_1179 PKB_3451(yeax3) PKB_3452(yeaW)
PSEC: CCOS191_3070(yeaW) CCOS191_3071(yeaX)
PSET: THL1_4425
ABM: ABSDF2579
ABY: ABAYE2957
ABB: ABBFA_02735(pobB_2) ABBFA_02737(antA_3)
ACC: BDGL_000119(yeaW) BDGL_000121(yeaX)
GPS: C427_2069
REH: H16_B2129(h16_B2129) H16_B2135(h16_B2135)
CABA: SBC2_60630(yeaW_3)
AXX: ERS451415_04102(bedC1)
VEI: Veis_3584
DAC: Daci_0610
MFA: Mfla_2646
MHUA: MCHK_5037
SIX: BSY16_679
PLEO: OHA_1_02049(hcaE)
CAK: Caul_3935
CSE: Cseg_0832
TSV: DSM104635_00106(doxB)
SIL: SPO1590
RUT: FIU92_00680(bedC1) FIU92_18595(antA)
RID: RIdsm_04325(antA_2) RIdsm_04442(antA_3)
ROH: FIU89_04735(hcaE) FIU89_14340(antA4)
NAR: Saro_1196
SAL: Sala_3165
SPHP: LH20_21655
SMAZ: LH19_25415
SPHU: SPPYR_3894
SWI: Swit_2261
SPHM: G432_09920
SSAN: NX02_22985
SPKC: KC8_15020
SPHR: BSY17_3922
SFLA: SPHFLASMR4Y_01989(bphA1)
BLAS: BSY18_756
SMIC: SmB9_21130
ERF: FIU90_01600(antA1)
BACO: OXB_3176
BFD: NCTC4823_03637(cbdA_2) NCTC4823_03640(cbdA_3)
MPA: MAP_2336
MAO: MAP4_1487
MAVI: RC58_07385
MAVU: RE97_07385
MAV: MAV_1644
MUL: MUL_3820
MMI: MMAR_3964
MSHG: MSG_03549
MPHL: MPHLCCUG_01826(hcaE_1)
FAL: FRAAL5337
PSEE: FRP1_21015
PSEH: XF36_18610
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:8000862]
  Authors
Ditullio D, Anderson D, Chen CS, Sih CJ
  Title
L-carnitine via enzyme-catalyzed oxidative kinetic resolution.
  Journal
Bioorg Med Chem 2:415-20 (1994)
DOI:10.1016/0968-0896(94)80009-X
Reference
2  [PMID:24591617]
  Authors
Zhu Y, Jameson E, Crosatti M, Schafer H, Rajakumar K, Bugg TD, Chen Y
  Title
Carnitine metabolism to trimethylamine by an unusual Rieske-type oxygenase from human microbiota.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:4268-73 (2014)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.1316569111
  Sequence
Reference
3  [PMID:25440057]
  Authors
Koeth RA, Levison BS, Culley MK, Buffa JA, Wang Z, Gregory JC, Org E, Wu Y, Li L, Smith JD, Tang WH, DiDonato JA, Lusis AJ, Hazen SL
  Title
gamma-Butyrobetaine is a proatherogenic intermediate in gut microbial metabolism of L-carnitine to TMAO.
  Journal
Cell Metab 20:799-812 (2014)
DOI:10.1016/j.cmet.2014.10.006
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.13.239
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.13.239
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.13.239
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.13.239

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