KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.14.16Help
Entry
EC 1.14.14.16               Enzyme                                 

Name
steroid 21-monooxygenase;
steroid 21-hydroxylase;
21-hydroxylase;
P450c21;
CYP21A2 (gene name)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen into the other donor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
steroid,NADPH---hemoprotein reductase:oxygen oxidoreductase (21-hydroxylating)
Reaction(IUBMB)
a C21 steroid + [reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = a 21-hydroxy-C21-steroid + [oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + H2O [RN:R02130]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
C21 steroid;
[reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] [CPD:C03024];
O2 [CPD:C00007]
Product
21-hydroxy-C21-steroid;
[oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] [CPD:C03161];
H2O [CPD:C00001]
Comment
A P-450 heme-thiolate protein responsible for the conversion of progesterone and 17alpha-hydroxyprogesterone to their respective 21-hydroxylated derivatives, 11-deoxycorticosterone and 11-deoxycortisol. Involved in the biosynthesis of the hormones aldosterone and cortisol. The electron donor is EC 1.6.2.4, NADPH---hemoprotein reductase.
History
EC 1.14.14.16 created 1961 as EC 1.99.1.11, transferred 1965 to EC 1.14.1.8, transferred 1972 to EC 1.14.99.10, modified 2013, transferred 2015 to EC 1.14.14.16
Pathway
ec00140  Steroid hormone biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
Orthology
K00513  steroid 21-monooxygenase
Genes
HSA: 1589(CYP21A2)
PTR: 745345
GGO: 101147473 109023079
PON: 100461354
NLE: 100579180
MCC: 717020(CYP21A2)
MCF: 102130610
CSAB: 103221724(CYP21A2)
RRO: 104674109
RBB: 108519899 108519901
CJC: 100395918(CYP21A2)
SBQ: 101047673
MMU: 13079(Cyp21a1)
MCAL: 110312588
MPAH: 110335614
RNO: 24298(Cyp21a1)
MUN: 110560117
CGE: 100767691
NGI: 103724459
HGL: 101717066
CCAN: 109689568
OCU: 100342636
TUP: 102491327
CFA: 415124(CYP21A2)
VVP: 112913634
AML: 100478117
UMR: 103682334
UAH: 113243763
ORO: 101381142
FCA: 101094596
PTG: 102966729
PPAD: 109260501
AJU: 106983476
BTA: 281741(CYP21)
BOM: 102267885
BIU: 109576856
CHX: 102174710
SSC: 403337(CYP21A2)
CFR: 102506530
CDK: 105087514
BACU: 103003841
LVE: 103069558
OOR: 101278959
DLE: 111170705
PCAD: 102985160
ECB: 100059277
EPZ: 103563302
EAI: 106831008
MYB: 102254156
MYD: 102775283
MNA: 107538945
HAI: 109373090
DRO: 112302380
PALE: 102898380
RAY: 107498441
MJV: 108393999
LAV: 100658069
TMU: 101359524
MDO: 100025565
SHR: 100932451
PCW: 110199314
OAA: 100086194
GGA: 429828(CYP21A1)
MGP: 100538455
CJO: 107321560
NMEL: 110406665
APLA: 101794100
ACYG: 106049851
LSR: 110478274
SCAN: 103822718
GFR: 102042267
FAB: 101816789
PHI: 102108296
PMAJ: 107213983
CCAE: 111938931
CCW: 104683162
ETL: 114070275
EGZ: 104133716
ASN: 112548178
AMJ: 102575314(CYP21A2)
CPIC: 101950331
ACS: 100552382
PVT: 110090188
PBI: 103054275
PMUR: 107293207
GJA: 107107307
XLA: 447267(cyp21a2.1.L)
XTR: 100489813(cyp21a2.1)
NPR: 108786530
DRE: 793249(cyp21a2)
SRX: 107743211
SANH: 107685595
SGH: 107596711
CCAR: 109104569
IPU: 108261472
PHYP: 113542548
AMEX: 103037969
EEE: 113570604
TRU: 101065814
LCO: 104922752
NCC: 104966285
MZE: 101472385
ONL: 100703376
OLA: 101157155
XMA: 102218645
XCO: 114140790
PRET: 103478543
CVG: 107102538
NFU: 107372377
KMR: 108241974
ALIM: 106517731
AOCE: 111588846
CSEM: 103388483
POV: 109633161
LCF: 108885898
SDU: 111238796
SLAL: 111668816
HCQ: 109517589
BPEC: 110171734
MALB: 109971672
SASA: 106606086
OTW: 112225325
SALP: 112079040
ELS: 105018837
SFM: 108927404
PKI: 111839059
LCM: 102346130
RTP: 109925585
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:14934270]
  Authors
DORFMAN RI, HAYANO M.
  Title
The action of adrenal homogenates on progesterone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone and 21-desoxycortisone.
  Journal
Arch Biochem 36:237-9 (1952)
DOI:10.1016/0003-9861(52)90397-4
Reference
2  [PMID:13031650]
  Authors
PLAGER JE, SAMUELS LT.
  Title
Synthesis of C14-17-hydroxy-11-desoxycorticosterone and 17-hydroxycorticosterone by fractionated extracts of adrenal homogenates.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 42:477-8 (1953)
DOI:10.1016/0003-9861(53)90378-6
Reference
3  [PMID:13416221]
  Authors
RYAN KJ, ENGEL LL.
  Title
Hydroxylation of steroids at carbon 21.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 225:103-14 (1957)
Reference
4  [PMID:6767716]
  Authors
Kominami S, Ochi H, Kobayashi Y, Takemori S
  Title
Studies on the steroid hydroxylation system in adrenal cortex microsomes. Purification and characterization of cytochrome P-450 specific for steroid C-21 hydroxylation.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 255:3386-94 (1980)
Reference
5  [PMID:14568563]
  Authors
Martineau I, Belanger A, Tchernof A, Tremblay Y
  Title
Molecular cloning and expression of guinea pig cytochrome P450c21 cDNA (steroid 21-hydroxylase) isolated from the adrenals.
  Journal
J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 86:123-32 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0960-0760(03)00261-9
Reference
6  [PMID:16597434]
  Authors
Arase M, Waterman MR, Kagawa N
  Title
Purification and characterization of bovine steroid 21-hydroxylase (P450c21) efficiently expressed in Escherichia coli.
  Journal
Biochem Biophys Res Commun 344:400-5 (2006)
DOI:10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.03.067
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.14.16
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.14.16
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.14.16
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.14.16
CAS: 9029-68-9

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