KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.14.95Help
Entry
EC 1.14.14.95               Enzyme                                 

Name
germacrene A hydroxylase;
GAO (gene name)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With reduced flavin or flavoprotein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen into the other donor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
(+)-germacrene-A,[reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (12-hydroxylating)
Reaction(IUBMB)
(+)-germacrene A + 3 [reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + 3 O2 = germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + 3 [oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + 4 H2O (overall reaction) [RN:R12128];
(1a) (+)-germacrene A + O2 + [reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] = germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-ol + [oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + H2O [RN:R09549];
(1b) germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-ol + O2 + [reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] = germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-al + [oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O [RN:R12129];
(1c) germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-al + O2 + [reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] = germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate + [oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + H2O [RN:R12130]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
(+)-germacrene A [CPD:C16141];
[reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] [CPD:C03024];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-ol [CPD:C19676];
germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-al [CPD:C19677]
Product
germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-oate [CPD:C19678];
[oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] [CPD:C03161];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-ol [CPD:C19676];
germacra-1(10),4,11(13)-trien-12-al [CPD:C19677]
Comment
A cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) protein. This plant enzyme catalyses three steps in a pathway that leads to the biosynthesis of many sesquiterpenoid lactones.
History
EC 1.14.14.95 created 2011 as EC 1.14.13.123, transferred 2018 to EC 1.14.14.95
Pathway
ec00909  Sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K15800  germacrene A oxidase
Genes
HAN: 110898214
LSV: 111882413
CCAV: 112515273
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:20351109]
  Authors
Nguyen DT, Gopfert JC, Ikezawa N, Macnevin G, Kathiresan M, Conrad J, Spring O, Ro DK
  Title
Biochemical conservation and evolution of germacrene A oxidase in asteraceae.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 285:16588-98 (2010)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M110.111757
  Sequence
Reference
2  [PMID:24704560]
  Authors
Liu Q, Manzano D, Tanic N, Pesic M, Bankovic J, Pateraki I, Ricard L, Ferrer A, de Vos R, van de Krol S, Bouwmeester H
  Title
Elucidation and in planta reconstitution of the parthenolide biosynthetic pathway.
  Journal
Metab Eng 23:145-53 (2014)
DOI:10.1016/j.ymben.2014.03.005
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.14.95
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.14.95
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.14.95
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.14.95

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