KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.15.21Help
Entry
EC 1.14.15.21               Enzyme                                 

Name
zeaxanthin epoxidase;
Zea-epoxidase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With reduced iron-sulfur protein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen into the other donor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
zeaxanthin,reduced ferredoxin:oxygen oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
zeaxanthin + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 4 H+ + 2 O2 = violaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O (overall reaction) [RN:R10070];
(1a) zeaxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + O2 = antheraxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O [RN:R06946];
(1b) antheraxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + O2 = violaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O [RN:R06947]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
zeaxanthin [CPD:C06098];
reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster [CPD:C00138];
H+ [CPD:C00080];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
antheraxanthin [CPD:C08579]
Product
violaxanthin [CPD:C08614];
oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster [CPD:C00139];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
antheraxanthin [CPD:C08579]
Comment
A flavoprotein (FAD) that is active under conditions of low light. Along with EC 1.23.5.1, violaxanthin de-epoxidase, this enzyme forms part of the xanthophyll (or violaxanthin) cycle, which is involved in protecting the plant against damage by excess light. It will also epoxidize lutein in some higher-plant species.
History
EC 1.14.15.21 created 2005 as EC 1.14.13.90, transferred 2016 to EC 1.14.15.21
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K09838  zeaxanthin epoxidase
Genes
ATH: AT5G67030(ABA1)
ALY: ARALYDRAFT_496897
CRB: 17874727
CSAT: 104727329 104762863
EUS: EUTSA_v10003769mg
BRP: 103829545 103837729
BNA: 106358361 106390346 111210027
BOE: 106306069 106319391
THJ: 104819235 104827149
CPAP: 110814468
TCC: 18611131
GRA: 105803918
GAB: 108463934
LJA: Lj0g3v0062999.1(Lj0g3v0062999.1) Lj2g3v1874610.1(Lj2g3v1874610.1) Lj3g3v0463700.1(Lj3g3v0463700.1)
FVE: 101306850
ZJU: 107424800
CSV: 101212903(ZEP)
CMO: 103497391(ZEP)
MCHA: 111017923
CMAX: 111499585
CMOS: 111451383
CPEP: 111795247
JRE: 109009082
VVI: 100232944(ZEP) 100257960
SLY: 544162(ZEP)
SPEN: 107011108
SOT: 102592281(ZEP)
CANN: 107860302
NTA: 107763949 107797654(ABA2)
NSY: 104218557
NTO: 104104310
NAU: 109209776
INI: 109189028(ZEP1) 109189029
BVG: 104883753
SOE: 110777504
OSA: 4335984
DOSA: Os04t0448900-00(Os04g0448900)
OBR: 102712906
BDI: 100835175
ATS: 109743907(LOC109743907)
SBI: 110436123
PDA: 103712512
EGU: 105058237
MUS: 103992210
DCT: 110097029
AOF: 109844541
SMO: SELMODRAFT_172667(Zep1-1) SELMODRAFT_234460(Zep1-2)
CRE: CHLREDRAFT_53522(ZEP1)
MNG: MNEG_6252
OLU: OSTLU_1611(ZEP)
MIS: MICPUN_82567(ZEP1)
APRO: F751_2668
SMIN: v1.2.016478.t1(symbB.v1.2.016478.t1) v1.2.016479.t1(symbB.v1.2.016479.t1) v1.2.019826.t1(symbB.v1.2.019826.t1)
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:8521963]
  Authors
Buch K, Stransky H, Hager A.
  Title
FAD is a further essential cofactor of the NAD(P)H and O2-dependent zeaxanthin-epoxidase.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 376:45-8 (1995)
DOI:10.1016/0014-5793(95)01243-9
Reference
2  [PMID:9624110]
  Authors
Bugos RC, Hieber AD, Yamamoto HY.
  Title
Xanthophyll cycle enzymes are members of the lipocalin family, the first identified from plants.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 273:15321-4 (1998)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.273.25.15321
Reference
3  [PMID:10890531]
  Authors
Thompson AJ, Jackson AC, Parker RA, Morpeth DR, Burbidge A, Taylor IB.
  Title
Abscisic acid biosynthesis in tomato: regulation of zeaxanthin epoxidase and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase mRNAs by light/dark cycles, water stress and abscisic acid.
  Journal
Plant Mol Biol 42:833-45 (2000)
Reference
4  [PMID:11058750]
  Authors
Hieber AD, Bugos RC, Yamamoto HY.
  Title
Plant lipocalins: violaxanthin de-epoxidase and zeaxanthin epoxidase.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1482:84-91 (2000)
DOI:10.1016/S0167-4838(00)00141-2
Reference
5  [PMID:11506368]
  Authors
Frommolt R, Goss R, Wilhelm C.
  Title
The de-epoxidase and epoxidase reactions of Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae) exhibit different substrate-specific reaction kinetics compared to spinach.
  Journal
Planta 213:446-56 (2001)
Reference
6
  Authors
Frommolt, R., Goss, R. and Wilhelm, C.
  Title
Erratum Report. The de-epoxidase and epoxidase reactions of Mantoniella squamata (Prasinophyceae) exhibit different substrate-specific reaction kinetics compared to spinach.
  Journal
Planta 213:492 (2001)
Reference
7  [PMID:12844265]
  Authors
Matsubara S, Morosinotto T, Bassi R, Christian AL, Fischer-Schliebs E, Luttge U, Orthen B, Franco AC, Scarano FR, Forster B, Pogson BJ, Osmond CB.
  Title
Occurrence of the lutein-epoxide cycle in mistletoes of the Loranthaceae and Viscaceae.
  Journal
Planta 217:868-79 (2003)
DOI:10.1007/s00425-003-1059-7
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.15.21
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.15.21
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.15.21
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.15.21
CAS: 149718-34-3

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