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Entry
EC 1.14.15.24               Enzyme                                 

Name
beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase;
beta-carotene 3,3'-monooxygenase;
CrtZ
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With reduced iron-sulfur protein as one donor, and incorporation of one atom of oxygen into the other donor
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
beta-carotene,reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster:oxygen 3-oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
beta-carotene + 4 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H+ + 2 O2 = zeaxanthin + 4 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + 2 H2O (overall reaction) [RN:R09747];
(1a) beta-carotene + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2 = beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O [RN:R07558];
(1b) beta-cryptoxanthin + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H+ + O2 = zeaxanthin + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster + H2O [RN:R07559]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
beta-carotene [CPD:C02094];
reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster [CPD:C00138];
H+ [CPD:C00080];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
beta-cryptoxanthin [CPD:C08591]
Product
zeaxanthin [CPD:C06098];
oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster [CPD:C00139];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
beta-cryptoxanthin [CPD:C08591]
Comment
Requires ferredoxin and Fe(II). Also acts on other carotenoids with a beta-end group. In some species canthaxanthin is the preferred substrate.
History
EC 1.14.15.24 created 2011 as EC 1.14.13.129, transferred 2017 to EC 1.14.15.24
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K15746  beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase
K22492  beta-carotene 3-hydroxylase
K23037  beta-carotene 4-ketolase/3-hydroxylase
Genes
RSS: 109442727
ATH: AT4G25700(BETA-OHASE_1) AT5G52570(BETA-OHASE_2)
ALY: ARALYDRAFT_492254 ARALYDRAFT_495328
CRB: 17875800 17877995
CSAT: 104717685 104722390 104725769 104727661 104730850 104761269
EUS: EUTSA_v10014816mg EUTSA_v10025794mg
BRP: 103844746 103861586(BCH) 103863442
BNA: 106347114 106405085 106406976 106421444 106421466 106442750 106442837 106442847
BOE: 106302033 106316293 106323808 106324977
THJ: 104800269 104811957
CPAP: 110810314
GMX: 100785541(BCH2) 100802778(BCH4) 100813368(BCH5) 547758(BCH3)
LJA: Lj0g3v0299729.1(Lj0g3v0299729.1) Lj2g3v1902110.1(Lj2g3v1902110.1) Lj5g3v1988680.1(Lj5g3v1988680.1)
ADU: 107491106
AIP: 107644881
CMO: 103482780 103484113(CHXB)
VVI: 100232875(BCH1) 100268009
SLY: 544133(CrtR-b1) 544297(CrtR-b2)
CANN: 107863219(CA1) 107873401(CA2)
NTA: 107789701 107809222(CrtR-b1) 107822278(BCH2)
INI: 109189248(CHYB)
HAN: 110912807
LSV: 111918038
CCAV: 112509279
BVG: 104888376
NNU: 104595976
DOSA: Os03t0125100-01(Os03g0125100) Os04t0578400-01(Os04g0578400) Os10t0533500-00(Os10g0533500)
ATS: 109759864(LOC109759864) 109783558(LOC109783558)
PDA: 103718481
AOF: 109837875
CRE: CHLREDRAFT_164400(CHYB)
VCN: VOLCADRAFT_68369(chyB)
MNG: MNEG_1351
MPP: MICPUCDRAFT_38006(CRTR)
APRO: F751_1825
ESA: ESA_00341
PSTS: E05_04180(crtZ)
EGE: EM595_0216(crtZ)
PAM: PANA_4163(crtZ)
PLF: PANA5342_p10304(crtZ)
PAJ: PAJ_p0121(crtZ)
PAQ: PAGR_p229
PVA: Pvag_pPag30170(crtZ)
PSTW: DSJ_25955
PPU: PP_3246(crtZ)
PPF: Pput_2516
PPT: PPS_2732
PPB: PPUBIRD1_2531(crtZ)
PPI: YSA_10718
PPX: T1E_5632(crtZ)
PPUH: B479_13325
PPUT: L483_17455
PPUN: PP4_25760(crtZ)
PPUD: DW66_2991
PMON: X969_13000
PMOT: X970_12645
PEN: PSEEN3115(crtZ)
PSA: PST_3871(crtZ)
PSZ: PSTAB_3822(crtZ)
PSR: PSTAA_3964(crtZ)
PSTT: CH92_19200
ACX: Achr_15260(crtZ)
RTA: Rta_07680
SCL: sce0583(crtZ)
XAU: Xaut_4535
RVA: Rvan_0152
CAK: Caul_1710
NAR: Saro_1168
SAL: Sala_2128
SPHP: LH20_13675
SMAZ: LH19_01990
SPHU: SPPYR_3342(crtZ)
SPHI: TS85_19965
SSAN: NX02_21750
SPKC: KC8_14900
SJP: SJA_C1-06860(crtZ)
SSY: SLG_38860(crtZ)
SPMI: K663_01820
SPHB: EP837_01682(crtZ)
SPHR: BSY17_1741
SINB: SIDU_10345
SPHT: K426_03985
BLAS: BSY18_170
SMIC: SmB9_24720(crtZ)
ELI: ELI_03325
AAY: WYH_00011
ALB: AEB_P3199
AFO: Afer_0482
AYM: YM304_38780(crtZ)
TTH: TT_P0059
TTJ: TTHB103
TAQ: TO73_1251
CPI: Cpin_5618
FLN: FLA_3500
SGN: SGRA_1065(crtR)
PHE: Phep_2089
MUC: MuYL_4807
CHU: CHU_2038(crtZ)
DFE: Dfer_2033
SLI: Slin_5702
FAE: FAES_0647
PSEZ: HME7025_02277(crtZ)
HSW: Hsw_1151
FLM: MY04_1511
GFO: GFO_2501(crtZ)
GFL: GRFL_0484
FJO: Fjoh_0059
FPS: FP1451(crtZ)
FBR: FBFL15_2142(crtZ)
FIN: KQS_04640(crtZ)
ZPR: ZPR_0874
MARM: YQ22_13890
CBAL: M667_09580
CBAT: M666_09505
DOK: MED134_13066(crtZ)
DDO: I597_1408
ZGA: ZOBELLIA_2972(crtZ)
MLT: VC82_2329
NDO: DDD_2395(crtZ)
POM: MED152_02565(crtZ1) MED152_02665(crtZ3)
EAO: BD94_2900
CHZ: CHSO_3057(crtZ)
WIN: WPG_0039
TJE: TJEJU_1860(crtZ)
TMAR: MARIT_0424
SPON: HME9304_02556(crtZ)
MARF: CJ739_2846
FBA: FIC_01508
FBU: UJ101_02156(crtZ)
PTO: PTO1531
CDIV: CPM_0972
SSO: SSO2906(crtZ)
SOL: Ssol_0702
SSOA: SULA_0695
SSOL: SULB_0697
SSOF: SULC_0695
SAI: Saci_1733(crtZ)
SID: M164_0447
MSE: Msed_1074
MCN: Mcup_1040
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:8798688]
  Authors
Sun Z, Gantt E, Cunningham FX Jr
  Title
Cloning and functional analysis of the beta-carotene hydroxylase of Arabidopsis thaliana.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 271:24349-52 (1996)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.271.40.24349
  Sequence
[ath:AT4G25700]
Reference
2  [PMID:9045623]
  Authors
Fraser PD, Miura Y, Misawa N
  Title
In vitro characterization of astaxanthin biosynthetic enzymes.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 272:6128-35 (1997)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.272.10.6128
Reference
3  [PMID:9523693]
  Authors
Fraser PD, Shimada H, Misawa N
  Title
Enzymic confirmation of reactions involved in routes to astaxanthin formation, elucidated using a direct substrate in vitro assay.
  Journal
Eur J Biochem 252:229-36 (1998)
DOI:10.1046/j.1432-1327.1998.2520229.x
Reference
4  [PMID:9555077]
  Authors
Bouvier F, Keller Y, d'Harlingue A, Camara B
  Title
Xanthophyll biosynthesis: molecular and functional characterization of carotenoid hydroxylases from pepper fruits (Capsicum annuum L.).
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1391:320-8 (1998)
DOI:10.1016/S0005-2760(98)00029-0
  Sequence
Reference
5  [PMID:10524195]
  Authors
Linden H
  Title
Carotenoid hydroxylase from Haematococcus pluvialis: cDNA sequence, regulation and functional complementation.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1446:203-12 (1999)
DOI:10.1016/S0167-4781(99)00088-3
  Sequence
Reference
6  [PMID:12591618]
  Authors
Zhu C, Yamamura S, Nishihara M, Koiwa H, Sandmann G
  Title
cDNAs for the synthesis of cyclic carotenoids in petals of Gentiana lutea and their regulation during flower development.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1625:305-8 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0167-4781(03)00017-4
  Sequence
Reference
7  [PMID:16614859]
  Authors
Choi SK, Matsuda S, Hoshino T, Peng X, Misawa N
  Title
Characterization of bacterial beta-carotene 3,3'-hydroxylases, CrtZ, and P450 in  astaxanthin biosynthetic pathway and adonirubin production by gene combination in Escherichia coli.
  Journal
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 72:1238-46 (2006)
DOI:10.1007/s00253-006-0426-2
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.15.24
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.15.24
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.15.24
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.15.24

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