KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.19.31
Entry
EC 1.14.19.31               Enzyme                                 
Name
acyl-lipid (7-3)-desaturase;
D4Des (gene name);
des1 (gene name);
CrDelta4FAD (gene name);
acyl-lipid 4-desaturase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With oxidation of a pair of donors resulting in the reduction of O2 to two molecules of water
Sysname
Delta7 acyl-lipid,ferrocytochrome b5:oxygen oxidoreductase (4,5 cis-dehydrogenating)
Reaction(IUBMB)
(1) a (7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-7,10,13,16,19-pentaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O;
(2) a (7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosa-7,10,13,16-tetraenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferrocytochrome b5 + O2 + 2 H+ = a (4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16-pentaenoyl-[glycerolipid] + 2 ferricytochrome b5 + 2 H2O
Substrate
(7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-7,10,13,16,19-pentaenoyl-[glycerolipid];
ferrocytochrome b5 [CPD:C00999];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
H+ [CPD:C00080];
(7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosa-7,10,13,16-tetraenoyl-[glycerolipid]
Product
(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16,19-hexaenoyl-[glycerolipid];
ferricytochrome b5 [CPD:C00996];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
(4Z,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z)-docosa-4,7,10,13,16-pentaenoyl-[glycerolipid]
Comment
The enzymes from several algae introduce a cis double bond at the 4-position in 22-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids that contain a Delta7 double bond. The enzyme from the fresh water alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii acts on the 16 carbon fatty acid (7Z,10Z,13Z)-hexadeca-7,10,13-trienoate [5]. The enzyme contains an N-terminal cytochrome b5 domain that acts as the direct electron donor to the active site of the desaturase, and does not require an external cytochrome.
History
EC 1.14.19.31 created 2015
Orthology
K12418  acyl-lipid (7-3)-desaturase (Delta-4 desaturase)
Genes
CRECHLRE_01g037700v5
VCNVOLCADRAFT_121243
MNGMNEG_2324 MNEG_2689
APROF751_0978
OLUOSTLU_17840 OSTLU_28687 OSTLU_29780
OTAOT_ostta01g00790 OT_ostta13g01550
BPGBathy01g00710 Bathy17g02010
MISMICPUN_55257 MICPUN_59313
MPPMICPUCDRAFT_60778
MBRMONBRDRAFT_11800
SREPTSG_04659
PTIPHATRDRAFT_22459(PTD5b) PHATR_46830(PTD5a)
FCYFRACYDRAFT_226788(FAD4) FRACYDRAFT_268672(FAD1)
TPSTHAPSDRAFT_10501(DES2) THAPSDRAFT_32546(DES1)
AAFAURANDRAFT_11873 AURANDRAFT_16926
GTTGUITHDRAFT_161182 GUITHDRAFT_89468
TBRTb10.6k15.3610
TBGTbgDal_X8680
TCR507609.40 510181.20
LMALMJF_14_1340
LIFLINJ_14_1420
LDOLDBPK_141420
LMILMXM_14_1340
LBZLBRM_14_1510
LPANLPMP_141320
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:11397798]
  Authors
Qiu X, Hong H, MacKenzie SL
  Title
Identification of a Delta 4 fatty acid desaturase from Thraustochytrium sp. involved in the biosynthesis of docosahexanoic acid by heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Brassica juncea.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 276:31561-6 (2001)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M102971200
Reference
2  [PMID:14572666]
  Authors
Tonon T, Harvey D, Larson TR, Graham IA
  Title
Identification of a very long chain polyunsaturated fatty acid Delta4-desaturase  from the microalga Pavlova lutheri.
  Journal
FEBS Lett 553:440-4 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0014-5793(03)01078-0
Reference
3  [PMID:12911321]
  Authors
Meyer A, Cirpus P, Ott C, Schlecker R, Zahringer U, Heinz E
  Title
Biosynthesis of docosahexaenoic acid in Euglena gracilis: biochemical and molecular evidence for the involvement of a Delta4-fatty acyl group desaturase.
  Journal
Biochemistry 42:9779-88 (2003)
DOI:10.1021/bi034731y
Reference
4  [PMID:17291553]
  Authors
Zhou XR, Robert SS, Petrie JR, Frampton DM, Mansour MP, Blackburn SI, Nichols PD, Green AG, Singh SP
  Title
Isolation and characterization of genes from the marine microalga Pavlova salina encoding three front-end desaturases involved in docosahexaenoic acid biosynthesis.
  Journal
Phytochemistry 68:785-96 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.12.016
Reference
5  [PMID:22562471]
  Authors
Zauner S, Jochum W, Bigorowski T, Benning C
  Title
A cytochrome b5-containing plastid-located fatty acid desaturase from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.
  Journal
Eukaryot Cell 11:856-63 (2012)
DOI:10.1128/EC.00079-12
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.19.31
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.19.31
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.19.31
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.19.31

DBGET integrated database retrieval system