KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.19.52Help
Entry
EC 1.14.19.52               Enzyme                                 

Name
camalexin synthase;
CYP71B15 (gene name);
bifunctional dihydrocamalexate synthase/camalexin synthase
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
With oxidation of a pair of donors resulting in the reduction of O2 to two molecules of water
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
2-(cystein-S-yl)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-acetonitrile, [reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase]:oxygen oxidoreductase (camalexin-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
2-(L-cystein-S-yl)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetonitrile + 2 [reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + 2 O2 = camalexin + hydrogen cyanide + CO2 + 2 [oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + 4 H2O (overall reaction) [RN:R11813];
(1a) 2-(L-cystein-S-yl)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetonitrile + [reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = (R)-dihydrocamalexate + hydrogen cyanide + [oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O [RN:R11814];
(1b) (R)-dihydrocamalexate + [reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + O2 = camalexin + CO2 + [oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] + 2 H2O [RN:R11815]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
2-(L-cystein-S-yl)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)acetonitrile [CPD:C21719];
[reduced NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] [CPD:C03024];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
(R)-dihydrocamalexate [CPD:C21722]
Product
camalexin [CPD:C21721];
hydrogen cyanide [CPD:C01326];
CO2 [CPD:C00011];
[oxidized NADPH---hemoprotein reductase] [CPD:C03161];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
(R)-dihydrocamalexate [CPD:C21722]
Comment
This cytochrome P-450 (heme thiolate) enzyme, which has been characterized from the plant Arabidopsis thaliana, catalyses the last two steps in the biosynthesis of camalexin, the main phytoalexin in that plant. The enzyme catalyses two successive oxidation events. During the first oxidation the enzyme introduces a C-N double bond, liberating hydrogen cyanide, and during the second oxidation it catalyses a decarboxylation.
History
EC 1.14.19.52 created 2017
Orthology
K20559  dihydrocamalexate/camalexin synthase
Genes
ATH: AT3G26830(PAD3)
ALY: 9311414
CRB: 17884730
CSAT: 104777885
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:16766671]
  Authors
Schuhegger R, Nafisi M, Mansourova M, Petersen BL, Olsen CE, Svatos A, Halkier BA, Glawischnig E
  Title
CYP71B15 (PAD3) catalyzes the final step in camalexin biosynthesis.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 141:1248-54 (2006)
DOI:10.1104/pp.106.082024
  Sequence
[ath:AT3G26830]
Reference
2  [PMID:19567706]
  Authors
Bottcher C, Westphal L, Schmotz C, Prade E, Scheel D, Glawischnig E
  Title
The multifunctional enzyme CYP71B15 (PHYTOALEXIN DEFICIENT3) converts cysteine-indole-3-acetonitrile to camalexin in the indole-3-acetonitrile metabolic network of Arabidopsis thaliana.
  Journal
Plant Cell 21:1830-45 (2009)
DOI:10.1105/tpc.109.066670
  Sequence
[ath:AT3G26830]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.19.52
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.19.52
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.19.52
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.19.52

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