KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.99.64
Entry
EC 1.14.99.64               Enzyme                                 
Name
zeaxanthin 4-ketolase;
BKT (ambiguous);
crtW148 (gene name)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
Miscellaneous
Sysname
zeaxanthin,donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (adonixanthin-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
(1) zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2 = adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O [RN:R07571];
(2) adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2 = (3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O [RN:R07573]
Reaction(KEGG)
R07571 R07573;
(other) R07557 R07565 R07566
Substrate
zeaxanthin [CPD:C06098];
reduced acceptor [CPD:C00030];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
adonixanthin [CPD:C15968]
Product
adonixanthin [CPD:C15968];
acceptor [CPD:C00028];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin [CPD:C08580]
Comment
The enzyme has a similar activity to that of EC 1.14.99.63, beta-carotene 4-ketolase, but unlike that enzyme is able to also act on zeaxanthin.
History
EC 1.14.99.64 created 2018
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K09836  beta-carotene/zeaxanthin 4-ketolase
Genes
CRECHLRE_04g215000v5
VCNVOLCADRAFT_127303(cbk1)
MNGMNEG_0808
RTARta_07690
NEOCYG48_21980
BRABRADO6505(crtW)
JAVOXU80_11185
ACUTMRB58_16345
BSBBresu_2277
BRDJL11_05885
BRGA4249_04370
BRLBZG35_08080
BVCCEP68_00760
BREVE7T10_10705
BFQJX001_09310
BRESE4341_10205
BREAHZ989_10865
PARREOJ32_07405
PAAKFIU66_14240
PLIAE4191_05660
PMAUCP157_02151
PAEXJHW48_06580
STAXMC45_05465
SPIIG7077_12810
SARIH5J25_02995
POQKZX46_16525
PMEAKTC28_14705
ARUEQQX03_03980
ANHA6F65_02210
EGNBMF35_a0114
ELIELI_03320
ELQGa0102493_111887
ERKCD351_13650
ERFFIU90_13605
PNSA9D12_01075
PORLBG023_112625
PHZCHX26_14210
POTE2E27_07845
AFLVQQW98_01865
RMTIAI58_06190
PBRPB2503_11009
MXAMXAN_6049
MSDMYSTI_06679
MYMA176_000846
MFBMFUL124B02_35020
MYXQEG98_33260
CCXCOCOR_06583(crtW)
MFULILAB_16045
MMASMYMAC_005830
SURSTAUR_6754
AGEAA314_08745
AVMJQX13_03460
MBDMEBOL_001798
CFUSCYFUS_008473
BSEDDN745_03185
PCAYFRD00_10870
BBAEFRD01_08870
SYESyncc9902_0972
SYGsync_1804
SYRSynRCC307_1993
SYXSynWH7803_0928
SYNESyn6312_1321
SYNPSyn7502_01940
SYNRKR49_01350
SYNWSynWH8103_01530
SYNCCB0101_02080
SYWSYNW1368
CGCCyagr_0842
CYICBM981_2741
CMPCha6605_0315 Cha6605_4514 Cha6605_5744
CYNCyan7425_5230
CEPCri9333_0170
LENLEP3755_43260
LETO77CONTIG1_02125
LBOLBWT_26070
PSERABRG53_3046
PGXOA858_21975
THEUHPC62_21880
TOGHNI00_06650
TSINOXH18_10945
GLPGlo7428_2965 Glo7428_3135
GDUP0S91_03570 P0S91_20390
GENGM3709_2452
GEEGM3708_1863
CYLAA637_00845(crtW)
SYPSYNPCC7002_A2809(crtW)
SYVAWQ23_14010
SYLAWQ21_14130
LEPLepto7376_2015
CYJCyan7822_5104
PPSUNO713_05200
MPROBJP34_32830
GVIgll1728(crtO)
GLJGKIL_3296
GMLISF26_01080
ANAalr3189
NPUNpun_F4798 Npun_F5919
NOSNos7107_4978
NONNOS3756_22680
NFLCOO91_05771
NOECLI64_28530
NSHGXM_04354
NEDHUN01_17815
AVAAva_2048 Ava_3888
ANNEH233_18150 EH233_26505
CSGCylst_4235
HBQQI031_27295
CALOCal7507_3244
CALNNIES2098_00100 NIES2098_59210
CALSNIES3974_44280
RIVRiv7116_6021
NSPBMF81_04508(crtW)
NSPHBDGGKGIB_03778
TOQHCG51_00755 HCG51_17065
NCNBZZ01_29270
CTHEChro_2833
ANFAQPE_1619
PEJFYC62_10455
PEKFFJ24_025845
PROEH9L23_26345
PEXIZT61_17375
PMUOLOK61_20665
PRKH9N25_24170
MUPA0256_02290
MUHHYN43_029965
MGKFSB76_16670
MRUBDEO27_031185
MGOSDIU38_032765
MDJLLH06_01495
MROBHH214_14990
MJJPQO05_23405
MSABSNE25_31725
SBXCA265_25400
CMRCycma_1287
CAMUCA2015_1201
BBDBelba_0846
EVIEchvi_1481
ESTDN752_10555
ECHIFKX85_07085
EMAIKZP23_05095
ALMAO498_03135
ALGOGYM62_17075
MDAIPZ59_03515
PSEZHME7025_02005
AANHG9X63_07945
ALENG9X62_08050
RHOZGXP67_07560
RSIRunsl_3500
RUNDR864_08270
RUPDTQ70_16765
FAEFAES_3517(crtO)
FIBA6C57_24720
FLIFleli_2161
HSWHsw_1159
HYMN008_02185
HYDPK28_06820
HYEAM218_09395
HYGAUC43_16265
HYPA0257_09415
HYZAXW84_06265
HNVDDQ68_22105
HYHD3Y59_07865
HYJFHG12_02820
HQIH9L05_01275
HRSHER32_16970
HBNGUY19_07525
HTSHMJ29_13310
HMTMTP16_18120
HTBMTX78_06855
HYKO9Z63_03240
HSKH4317_13700
HCWO3303_01465
HSBMWH26_04125
HAEIMUN82_12750
HCUMUN79_13255
HVLMUN86_06380
HCFMUN80_12195
PKOPKOR_22120
PACTCA264_10885
RUFTH63_10565
RTIDC20_01375
RUDTH61_00060
NIBGU926_05430
ADDHUW48_15820
ASWUHUW51_16685
FBTD770_17135
PRHOPZB74_16595
TPELP0M28_27955
RSRT7867_04160
IALIALB_0392
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:21398427]
  Authors
Zhong YJ, Huang JC, Liu J, Li Y, Jiang Y, Xu ZF, Sandmann G, Chen F
  Title
Functional characterization of various algal carotenoid ketolases reveals that ketolating zeaxanthin efficiently is essential for high production of astaxanthin in transgenic Arabidopsis.
  Journal
J Exp Bot 62:3659-69 (2011)
DOI:10.1093/jxb/err070
Reference
2  [PMID:22526507]
  Authors
Huang J, Zhong Y, Sandmann G, Liu J, Chen F
  Title
Cloning and selection of carotenoid ketolase genes for the engineering of high-yield astaxanthin in plants.
  Journal
Planta 236:691-9 (2012)
DOI:10.1007/s00425-012-1654-6
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.99.64
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.99.64
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.99.64
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.99.64

DBGET integrated database retrieval system