KEGG   ENZYME: 1.14.99.64Help
Entry
EC 1.14.99.64               Enzyme                                 

Name
zeaxanthin 4-ketolase;
BKT (ambiguous);
crtW148 (gene name)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on paired donors, with incorporation or reduction of molecular oxygen;
Miscellaneous
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
zeaxanthin,donor:oxygen oxidoreductase (adonixanthin-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
(1) zeaxanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2 = adonixanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O [RN:R07571];
(2) adonixanthin + 2 reduced acceptor + 2 O2 = (3S,3'S)-astaxanthin + 2 acceptor + 3 H2O [RN:R07573]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
zeaxanthin [CPD:C06098];
reduced acceptor [CPD:C00030];
O2 [CPD:C00007];
adonixanthin [CPD:C15968]
Product
adonixanthin [CPD:C15968];
acceptor [CPD:C00028];
H2O [CPD:C00001];
(3S,3'S)-astaxanthin [CPD:C08580]
Comment
The enzyme has a similar activity to that of EC 1.14.99.63, beta-carotene 4-ketolase, but unlike that enzyme is able to also act on zeaxanthin.
History
EC 1.14.99.64 created 2018
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K09836  beta-carotene/zeaxanthin 4-ketolase
Genes
CRE: CHLREDRAFT_185186(CBK1)
VCN: VOLCADRAFT_127303(cbk1)
MNG: MNEG_0808
RTA: Rta_07690
MXA: MXAN_6049
MFU: LILAB_16045
MSD: MYSTI_06679
MYM: A176_000846
MMAS: MYMAC_005830
CCX: COCOR_06583(crtW)
BRA: BRADO6505(crtW)
STAX: MC45_05465
ELI: ELI_03320
SYW: SYNW1368
SYG: sync_1804
SYP: SYNPCC7002_A2809(crtW)
SYNR: KR49_01350
CYL: AA637_00845(crtW)
GVI: gvip239(crtO)
GLJ: GKIL_3296
ANA: alr3189
NSH: GXM_04354
NSP: BMF81_04508(crtW)
CTHE: Chro_2833
SACI: Sinac_1986
FAE: FAES_3517(crtO)
HSW: Hsw_1159
IAL: IALB_0392
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:21398427]
  Authors
Zhong YJ, Huang JC, Liu J, Li Y, Jiang Y, Xu ZF, Sandmann G, Chen F
  Title
Functional characterization of various algal carotenoid ketolases reveals that ketolating zeaxanthin efficiently is essential for high production of astaxanthin in transgenic Arabidopsis.
  Journal
J Exp Bot 62:3659-69 (2011)
DOI:10.1093/jxb/err070
Reference
2  [PMID:22526507]
  Authors
Huang J, Zhong Y, Sandmann G, Liu J, Chen F
  Title
Cloning and selection of carotenoid ketolase genes for the engineering of high-yield astaxanthin in plants.
  Journal
Planta 236:691-9 (2012)
DOI:10.1007/s00425-012-1654-6
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.14.99.64
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.14.99.64
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.14.99.64
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.14.99.64

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