KEGG   ENZYME: 1.3.1.109
Entry
EC 1.3.1.109                Enzyme                                 

Name
butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase complex (NAD+, ferredoxin);
bifurcating butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase;
butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex;
Etf-Bcd complex;
bifurcating butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase;
butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex;
butanoyl-CoA dehydrogenase (NAD+, ferredoxin)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-CH group of donors;
With NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor
Sysname
butanoyl-CoA:NAD+, ferredoxin oxidoreductase
Reaction(IUBMB)
butanoyl-CoA + 2 NAD+ + 2 reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster = (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA + 2 NADH + 2 oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster [RN:R11675]
Reaction(KEGG)
R11675
Substrate
butanoyl-CoA [CPD:C00136];
NAD+ [CPD:C00003];
reduced ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster [CPD:C00138]
Product
(E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA [CPD:C00877];
NADH [CPD:C00004];
oxidized ferredoxin [iron-sulfur] cluster [CPD:C00139]
Comment
The enzyme is a complex of a flavin-containing dehydrogenase component (Bcd) and an electron-transfer flavoprotein dimer (EtfAB). The enzyme complex, isolated from the bacteria Acidaminococcus fermentans and butanoate-producing Clostridia species, couples the exergonic reduction of (E)-but-2-enoyl-CoA to butanoyl-CoA by NADH to the endergonic reduction of ferredoxin by NADH, using electron bifurcation to overcome the steep energy barrier in ferredoxin reduction.
History
EC 1.3.1.109 created 2015, modified 2021
Reference
1  [PMID:17993531]
  Authors
Li F, Hinderberger J, Seedorf H, Zhang J, Buckel W, Thauer RK
  Title
Coupled ferredoxin and crotonyl coenzyme A (CoA) reduction with NADH catalyzed by the butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase/Etf complex from Clostridium kluyveri.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 190:843-50 (2008)
DOI:10.1128/JB.01417-07
  Sequence
Reference
2  [PMID:23772070]
  Authors
Aboulnaga el-H, Pinkenburg O, Schiffels J, El-Refai A, Buckel W, Selmer T
  Title
Effect of an oxygen-tolerant bifurcating butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase/electron-transferring flavoprotein complex from Clostridium difficile on butyrate production in Escherichia coli.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 195:3704-13 (2013)
DOI:10.1128/JB.00321-13
  Sequence
Reference
3  [PMID:24379410]
  Authors
Chowdhury NP, Mowafy AM, Demmer JK, Upadhyay V, Koelzer S, Jayamani E, Kahnt J, Hornung M, Demmer U, Ermler U, Buckel W
  Title
Studies on the mechanism of electron bifurcation catalyzed by electron transferring flavoprotein (Etf) and butyryl-CoA dehydrogenase (Bcd) of Acidaminococcus fermentans.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 289:5145-57 (2014)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M113.521013
  Sequence
Reference
4  [PMID:25903584]
  Authors
Chowdhury NP, Kahnt J, Buckel W.
  Title
Reduction of ferredoxin or oxygen by flavin-based electron bifurcation in Megasphaera elsdenii.
  Journal
FEBS J 282:3149-60 (2015)
DOI:10.1111/febs.13308
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.3.1.109
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.3.1.109
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.3.1.109
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.3.1.109

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