KEGG   ENZYME: 1.3.99.39
Entry
EC 1.3.99.39                Enzyme                                 

Name
carotenoid phi-ring synthase;
crtU (gene name) (ambiguous)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-CH group of donors;
With unknown physiological acceptors
Sysname
carotenoid beta-ring:acceptor oxidoreductase/methyltranferase (phi-ring forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
carotenoid beta-end group + 2 acceptor = carotenoid phi-end group + 2 reduced acceptor [RN:R12115]
Reaction(KEGG)
R12115 > R07541 R07857 R07858;
(other) R07560
Substrate
carotenoid beta-end group [CPD:C21915];
acceptor [CPD:C00028]
Product
carotenoid phi-end group [CPD:C21916];
reduced acceptor [CPD:C00030]
Comment
The enzyme, found in green sulfur bacteria, some cyanobacteria and some actinobacteria, introduces additional double bonds to the carotenoid beta-end group, leading to aromatization of the ionone ring. As a result, one of the methyl groups at C-1 is transferred to position C-2. It is involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids with phi-type aromatic end groups such as chlorobactene, beta-isorenieratene, and isorenieratene.
History
EC 1.3.99.39 created 2018
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
Orthology
K09879  carotenoid phi-ring synthase / carotenoid chi-ring synthase
Genes
MPUR: MARPU_13345
TSY: THSYN_31050
GBI: PG2T_09200
GPB: HDN1F_18440
AGE: AA314_01168
MBD: MEBOL_006296
CFUS: CYFUS_002285
SAMY: DB32_005179 DB32_008580
HOH: Hoch_2162
MPA: MAP_3075
MAO: MAP4_0725
MAVI: RC58_03535
MAVU: RE97_03540
MAV: MAV_3890
MIT: OCO_37120
MIA: OCU_37200
MID: MIP_05621
MYO: OEM_37780
MIR: OCQ_38330
MMC: Mmcs_5080
MKM: Mkms_5168
MJL: Mjls_5459
MMM: W7S_18580
MSHG: MSG_01535
MVA: Mvan_1580
MGI: Mflv_1844
MPHL: MPHLCCUG_02043(pds_2)
MVQ: MYVA_1335
MTHN: 4412656_00241(pds)
MHAS: MHAS_02867(pds)
NFA: NFA_3040
RHB: NY08_3769
RFA: A3L23_01906(pds)
RHS: A3Q41_01459(pds)
SCO: SCO0189(crtU)
SALB: XNR_5691
SMA: SAVERM_1019(crtU)
SGR: SGR_56t(crtU2) SGR_6826(crtU) SGR_7083t(crtU3)
SCB: SCAB_5511(crtU)
SCT: SCAT_p0247(crtU)
SFA: Sfla_0352
SHY: SHJG_1675
SALS: SLNWT_1103
STRP: F750_6659
SFI: SFUL_35
STRM: M444_00670
SPRI: SPRI_1987
SLE: sle_65890(sle_65890)
SMAL: SMALA_8202
SLAU: SLA_5754
SALJ: SMD11_1198
SGE: DWG14_00741(pds_1)
SRJ: SRO_7452
IDO: I598_1137
SERJ: SGUI_1794
BLIN: BLSMQ_3111
MPH: MLP_17830
KFL: Kfla_3858
TFU: Tfu_3090
NDA: Ndas_3570
STRR: EKD16_08510(pds)
NML: Namu_2500
SEN: SACE_3271(crtU)
AMD: AMED_4070(crtU)
AMN: RAM_20740
AMM: AMES_4022(crtU)
AMZ: B737_4022(crtU)
AOI: AORI_1550(crtU)
AMQ: AMETH_3322(crtU)
PDX: Psed_3342
PSEE: FRP1_10365
PSEH: XF36_09615
PAUT: Pdca_36260(crtU)
SESP: BN6_50870(crtU)
SAQ: Sare_0282
MIL: ML5_2707
ACTN: L083_3346
SYN: sll0254
SYY: SYNGTS_1358(sll0254)
SYT: SYNGTI_1358(sll0254)
SYS: SYNPCCN_1357(sll0254)
SYQ: SYNPCCP_1357(sll0254)
SYW: SYNW1393
SYP: SYNPCC7002_A1248(crtU)
SYNR: KR49_01110
PMT: PMT_0955
CYL: AA637_02280(crtU)
CYT: cce_2233
TER: Tery_3577
ARP: NIES39_D01920(crtL)
PAGH: NIES204_24750(crtL)
GVI: gll1923
GLJ: GKIL_2757(crtU)
ANA: alr2785
AVA: Ava_0036
CTHE: Chro_4091
CEO: ETSB_1389
CTE: CT0323
CPC: Cpar_1713
CLI: Clim_1747
PVI: Cvib_0486
PLT: Plut_0435
PPH: Ppha_2256
PAA: Paes_1698
PROC: Ptc2401_01837(petC_1)
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:4774401]
  Authors
Moshier SE, Chapman DJ
  Title
Biosynthetic studies on aromatic carotenoids. Biosynthesis of chlorobactene.
  Journal
Biochem J 136:395-404 (1973)
DOI:10.1042/bj1360395
Reference
2  [PMID:10395965]
  Authors
Krugel H, Krubasik P, Weber K, Saluz HP, Sandmann G.
  Title
Functional analysis of genes from Streptomyces griseus involved in the synthesis of isorenieratene, a carotenoid with aromatic end groups, revealed a novel type of carotenoid desaturase.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1439:57-64 (1999)
DOI:10.1016/S1388-1981(99)00075-X
Reference
3  [PMID:15292122]
  Authors
Frigaard NU, Maresca JA, Yunker CE, Jones AD, Bryant DA.
  Title
Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 186:5210-20 (2004)
DOI:10.1128/JB.186.16.5210-5220.2004
  Sequence
[cte:CT0323]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.3.99.39
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.3.99.39
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.3.99.39
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.3.99.39

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