KEGG   ENZYME: 1.3.99.39
Entry
EC 1.3.99.39                Enzyme                                 
Name
carotenoid phi-ring synthase;
crtU (gene name) (ambiguous)
Class
Oxidoreductases;
Acting on the CH-CH group of donors;
With unknown physiological acceptors
Sysname
carotenoid beta-ring:acceptor oxidoreductase/methyltranferase (phi-ring-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
carotenoid beta-end group + 2 acceptor = carotenoid phi-end group + 2 reduced acceptor [RN:R12115]
Reaction(KEGG)
R12115 > R07541 R07857 R07858;
(other) R07560
Substrate
carotenoid beta-end group [CPD:C21915];
acceptor [CPD:C00028]
Product
carotenoid phi-end group [CPD:C21916];
reduced acceptor [CPD:C00030]
Comment
The enzyme, found in green sulfur bacteria, some cyanobacteria and some actinobacteria, introduces additional double bonds to the carotenoid beta-end group, leading to aromatization of the ionone ring. As a result, one of the methyl groups at C-1 is transferred to position C-2. It is involved in the biosynthesis of carotenoids with phi-type aromatic end groups such as chlorobactene, beta-isorenieratene, and isorenieratene.
History
EC 1.3.99.39 created 2018
Pathway
ec00906  Carotenoid biosynthesis
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K09879  carotenoid phi-ring synthase / carotenoid chi-ring synthase
Genes
THIMKFB96_13130
GBIPG2T_09200
AGEAA314_01168
AVMJQX13_39885
MBDMEBOL_006296
CFUSCYFUS_002285
SAMYDB32_005179 DB32_008580
HOHHoch_2162
MPAMAP_3075
MAOMAP4_0725
MAVIRC58_03535
MAVURE97_03540
MAVMAV_3890
MITOCO_37120
MIAOCU_37200
MIDMIP_05621
MYOOEM_37780
MCHIAN480_19615
MIROCQ_38330
MMALCKJ54_17625
MMANMMAN_00710
MSAMycsm_04908
MMCMmcs_5080
MKMMkms_5168
MJLMjls_5459
MMMW7S_18580
MYEAB431_19405
MGOAFA91_27840
MSHGMSG_01535
MSIMMSIM_08660
MSAKMSAS_52840
MKUI2456_08470
MGROFZ046_15700 FZ046_20810
MXEMYXE_43310
MNVMNVI_30860
MPAGC0J29_09730
MGORH0P51_09165
MCOOMCOO_47810 MCOO_48880
MSEOMSEO_03470
MHEKJMUB5695_04217
MGAUMGALJ_28840
MDFK0O62_23840
MHOLK3U96_19730
MPAEK0O64_18765
MSMMSMEG_2344
MSGMSMEI_2283
MSBLJ00_11650
MSNLI99_11650
MSHLI98_11655
MVAMvan_1580
MGIMflv_1844
MSPMspyr1_12450
MCBMycch_1184
MNED174_22650
MYNMyAD_22210
MPHLMPHLCCUG_02043(pds_2)
MVQMYVA_1335
MLLB1R94_10450
MRHMycrhN_3658
MTHN4412656_00241(pds)
MHASMHAS_02867(pds)
MDUMDUV_31930
MDRMDOR_36090
MAUUNCTC10437_01603(pds_1) NCTC10437_04608(pds_2)
MMAGMMAD_33560
MAICMAIC_34480
MTYMTOK_54220(crtU)
MPSCMPSYJ_34700 MPSYJ_51550
MARZMARA_41900(crtU)
MGADMGAD_53570
MHEVMHEL_00200 MHEL_60530
MSARMSAR_05720 MSAR_34970
MANYMANY_19290
MPOFMPOR_18260 MPOR_21090
MSEIMSEDJ_29940
MFLVNCTC10271_03420(pds_2)
NBRO3I_023370
NOZDMB37_36275
NGPLTT66_31855
RHBNY08_3769
RAVAAT18_03775
RFAA3L23_01906(pds)
RHSA3Q41_01459(pds)
RRZCS378_19450
RCRNCTC10994_03817(pds_2)
SCOSCO0189(crtU)
SALBXNR_5691
SMASAVERM_1019(crtU)
SGRSGR_56t(crtU2) SGR_6826(crtU) SGR_7083t(crtU3)
SGBWQO_01605 WQO_03645
SCBSCAB_5511(crtU)
SSXSACTE_5153
SHYSHJG_1675
SHOSHJGH_1439
SRCM271_50805
SCTSCAT_p0247(crtU)
SCYSCATT_p14960
SFASfla_0352
SALSSLNWT_1103
STRPF750_6659
SFISFUL_35
SCIB446_02750
SLVSLIV_36950
SGUSGLAU_01575
SLCSL103_19485
STRMM444_00670
STRCAA958_24630
SAMBSAM23877_7079
SPRISPRI_1987
SCZABE83_00565
SCXAS200_41705
SRWTUE45_00778
STRFASR50_03815
SLEsle_65890(sle_65890)
SRNA4G23_05081(pds)
SPAVSpa2297_00770
STRTA8713_01055
STSIA4E84_26100
SKYD0C37_30665
SCADDN051_36065
SPLULK06_001920
STRDNI25_03600 NI25_35260
SNWBBN63_01755
SSIAA7J05_32655
SVUB1H20_04200
SLAUSLA_5754
STROSTRMOE7_36135
SNZDC008_32765
SGEDWG14_00741(pds_1)
SRJSRO_7452
SGDELQ87_38880
SASTCD934_01545
STIRDDW44_25185
SGZC0216_14720
SNKCP967_06265
SHAWCEB94_26630
SFICEIZ62_00475
SSPODDQ41_26825
SGFHEP81_07765 HEP81_07985
SCAVCVT27_32540
SBYH7H31_01630
SRIMCP984_00955
SSUBCP968_03485
SCINCP977_26925
SFUGCNQ36_26825
SPACB1H29_34210
STSUB7R87_30815
SBATG4Z16_15755
SPLACP981_36295
STUIGCM10017668_46170(crtU)
SCHFIPT68_11620
SCYGS1361_29465(pds1)
SDWK7C20_35115
SVDCP969_05030
SCALI6J39_04385
SAUHSU9_032490
SFBCP974_27125
SPRACP972_28955
SGJIAG43_30995
SHKJ2N69_03195
SANUK7396_01430
SDDD9753_01875
SACTDMT42_03210
KABB7C62_00145
KAUB6264_24015
STRIC7M71_002895
LLUTK1X41_06055
RKRI6G21_07730
DNIHX89_02440
DAYFV141_01780
IDOI598_1137
PSEIGCE65_12325
ARSADJ73_03980
PHWG7075_19120
PEIH9L10_12920
SERJSGUI_1794
SERWFY030_00370
ORNDV701_12485
BLYA2T55_14075
BLINBLSMQ_3111
BCAUI6G59_06285
DCOSAMEA4475696_0719
AUSIPK37_07920
AJIC0Z10_12405
MPHMLP_17830
MIKFOE78_05420
MICGGJV80_17605
TFLRPIT_13185
TFABW733_01515
TESBW730_02775
TEZBKM78_12565
TLATLA_TLA_02530(pds)
RAINRai3103_07445
BRTJ4N02_13505
AERAERYTH_16565
MGGMPLG2_3620
KFLKfla_3858
TFUTfu_3090
THAONI17_019680
NDANdas_3570
STRREKD16_08510(pds)
SAIUJ4H86_11525
NMLNamu_2500
SENSACE_3271(crtU)
SACGFDZ84_24055
SVISvir_26460
SACCEYD13_09010
AMDAMED_4070(crtU)
AMNRAM_20740
AMMAMES_4022(crtU)
AMZB737_4022(crtU)
AOIAORI_1550(crtU)
AMQAMETH_3322(crtU)
AORISD37_26385
AACDLWP59_15920
PDXPsed_3342
PSEEFRP1_10365
PSEHXF36_09615
PSEQAD006_20590
PECQAD017_00170
PHHAFB00_26940
PAUTPdca_36260(crtU)
PBROHOP40_24745
APRECNX65_19075 CNX65_24395
AMIAmir_3813 Amir_4947
SESPBN6_50870(crtU)
SSYIEKG83_32875
LEDBBK82_42480
ACTAC1701_24090
SACEGIY23_11585
STPStrop_0241
SAQSare_0282
MAUMicau_5788
MILML5_2707
MICBMicB006_1836
MTUACSH63_28390
MICHFJK98_30095
MTEMGCE86_23580
MCABHXZ27_28875
MSAGGCM10017556_20460
VMAVAB18032_02430
MCRAID554_17670
AMSAMIS_28910
ACTNL083_3346
PLKCIK06_26705
PLABC6361_10695
PLATC6W10_07760
VERHUT12_30005
ATLAthai_14640
ASERAsera_27650
PRYPrubr_30650(crtU)
DVCDvina_31770
AEYCDG81_09525
SYNsll0254
SYZMYO_113700
SYYSYNGTS_1358(sll0254)
SYTSYNGTI_1358(sll0254)
SYSSYNPCCN_1357(sll0254)
SYQSYNPCCP_1357(sll0254)
SYJD082_08530
SYOC7I86_07040
SYPSYNPCC7002_A1248(crtU)
SYVAWQ23_06415
SYLAWQ21_06425
DSLDacsa_1149
LEPLepto7376_3648
LSCKIK02_23605
LSKJ5X98_08595
HHGXM38_018380
PSEUPse7367_3429
GENGM3709_215
GEEGM3708_1159
CANCyan10605_0140
CSNCyast_0247
CYLAA637_02280(crtU)
HAOPCC7418_2662
ENNFRE64_05840
CYTcce_2233
CWACwatDRAFT_3579
CYPPCC8801_0517
CYHCyan8802_0534
CYCPCC7424_4868
CYJCyan7822_2325
TERTery_3577
ARPNIES39_D01920(crtL)
PAGHNIES204_24750(crtL)
MVAGD0A34_16180
LFSHFV01_19940
MICMic7113_3928
ONIOsc7112_1537
GVIgll1923
GLJGKIL_2757(crtU)
GMLISF26_00135 ISF26_16075
ANAalr2785
NOSNos7107_2383
NOPNos7524_4632
NONNOS3756_02240
NOECLI64_17100
AVAAva_0036
ACYAnacy_0004
ANNEH233_06865
RSINB6N60_00571
CALOCal7507_2669
TOQHCG51_02360
CTHEChro_4091
PLPPle7327_2440
CEOETSB_1389
CERRGRSB_1622
PMETG4Y79_00540
CTECT0323
CPCCpar_1713
CLZBIU88_01545
CPHCpha266_0659
CPBCphamn1_1875
CLIClim_1747
PVICvib_0486
PLTPlut_0435
PPHPpha_2256
PAAPaes_1698
PROCPtc2401_01837(petC_1)
PRSB9H02_03175
PROSCHL67_02745
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:4774401]
  Authors
Moshier SE, Chapman DJ
  Title
Biosynthetic studies on aromatic carotenoids. Biosynthesis of chlorobactene.
  Journal
Biochem J 136:395-404 (1973)
DOI:10.1042/bj1360395
Reference
2  [PMID:10395965]
  Authors
Krugel H, Krubasik P, Weber K, Saluz HP, Sandmann G.
  Title
Functional analysis of genes from Streptomyces griseus involved in the synthesis of isorenieratene, a carotenoid with aromatic end groups, revealed a novel type of carotenoid desaturase.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1439:57-64 (1999)
DOI:10.1016/S1388-1981(99)00075-X
Reference
3  [PMID:15292122]
  Authors
Frigaard NU, Maresca JA, Yunker CE, Jones AD, Bryant DA.
  Title
Genetic manipulation of carotenoid biosynthesis in the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum.
  Journal
J Bacteriol 186:5210-20 (2004)
DOI:10.1128/JB.186.16.5210-5220.2004
  Sequence
[cte:CT0323]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 1.3.99.39
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 1.3.99.39
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 1.3.99.39
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 1.3.99.39

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