KEGG   ENZYME: 2.1.1.160
Entry
EC 2.1.1.160                Enzyme                                 
Name
caffeine synthase;
dimethylxanthine methyltransferase;
3N-methyltransferase;
DXMT;
CCS1;
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,7-dimethylxanthine 1-N-methyltransferase
Class
Transferases;
Transferring one-carbon groups;
Methyltransferases
Sysname
S-adenosyl-L-methionine:3,7-dimethylxanthine N1-methyltransferase
Reaction(IUBMB)
(1) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 3,7-dimethylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine [RN:R07920];
(2) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 1,7-dimethylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 1,3,7-trimethylxanthine [RN:R07921];
(3) S-adenosyl-L-methionine + 7-methylxanthine = S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine + 3,7-dimethylxanthine [RN:R07919]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
S-adenosyl-L-methionine [CPD:C00019];
3,7-dimethylxanthine [CPD:C07480];
1,7-dimethylxanthine [CPD:C13747];
7-methylxanthine [CPD:C16353]
Product
S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine [CPD:C00021];
1,3,7-trimethylxanthine [CPD:C07481];
3,7-dimethylxanthine [CPD:C07480]
Comment
Paraxanthine is the best substrate for this enzyme but the paraxanthine pathway is considered to be a minor pathway for caffeine biosynthesis [2,3].
History
EC 2.1.1.160 created 2007
Pathway
ec00232  Caffeine metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
ec01120  Microbial metabolism in diverse environments
Orthology
K12731  caffeine synthase
Genes
CIT102617008
PVY116107988
TCC108663908 18585922(BCS1) 18585928
DZI111309483 111309747
EGR104421108 104421109 104421110 104423345
Reference
1  [PMID:10364410]
  Authors
Kato M, Mizuno K, Fujimura T, Iwama M, Irie M, Crozier A, Ashihara H
  Title
Purification and characterization of caffeine synthase from tea leaves.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 120:579-86 (1999)
DOI:10.1104/pp.120.2.579
  Sequence
Reference
2  [PMID:12527364]
  Authors
Mizuno K, Okuda A, Kato M, Yoneyama N, Tanaka H, Ashihara H, Fujimura T
  Title
Isolation of a new dual-functional caffeine synthase gene encoding an enzyme for the conversion of 7-methylxanthine to caffeine from coffee (Coffea arabica L.).
  Journal
FEBS Lett 534:75-81 (2003)
DOI:10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03781-X
  Sequence
Reference
3  [PMID:12746542]
  Authors
Uefuji H, Ogita S, Yamaguchi Y, Koizumi N, Sano H
  Title
Molecular cloning and functional characterization of three distinct N-methyltransferases involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway in coffee plants.
  Journal
Plant Physiol 132:372-80 (2003)
DOI:10.1104/pp.102.019679
  Sequence
Reference
4  [PMID:10984041]
  Authors
Kato M, Mizuno K, Crozier A, Fujimura T, Ashihara H
  Title
Caffeine synthase gene from tea leaves.
  Journal
Nature 406:956-7 (2000)
DOI:10.1038/35023072
  Sequence
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 2.1.1.160
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 2.1.1.160
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 2.1.1.160
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 2.1.1.160

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