KEGG   ENZYME: 2.3.1.26
Entry
EC 2.3.1.26                 Enzyme                                 

Name
sterol O-acyltransferase;
cholesterol acyltransferase;
sterol-ester synthase;
acyl coenzyme A-cholesterol-O-acyltransferase;
acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase;
ACAT;
acylcoenzyme A:cholesterol O-acyltransferase;
cholesterol ester synthase;
cholesterol ester synthetase;
cholesteryl ester synthetase;
SOAT1 (gene name);
SOAT2 (gene name);
ARE1 (gene name);
ARE2 (gene name);
acyl-CoA:cholesterol O-acyltransferase
Class
Transferases;
Acyltransferases;
Transferring groups other than aminoacyl groups
Sysname
long-chain acyl-CoA:sterol O-acyltransferase
Reaction(IUBMB)
a long-chain acyl-CoA + a sterol = CoA + a long-chain 3-hydroxysterol ester [RN:R12496]
Reaction(KEGG)
R12496 > R01461
Substrate
long-chain acyl-CoA [CPD:C02843];
sterol [CPD:C00370]
Product
CoA [CPD:C00010];
long-chain 3-hydroxysterol ester [CPD:C22215]
Comment
The enzyme catalyses the formation of sterol esters from a sterol and long-chain fatty acyl-coenzyme A. The enzyme from yeast, but not from mammals, prefers monounsaturated acyl-CoA. In mammals the enzyme acts mainly on cholesterol and forms cholesterol esters that are stored in cytosolic droplets, which may serve to protect cells from the toxicity of free cholesterol. In macrophages, the accumulation of cytosolic droplets of cholesterol esters results in the formation of `foam cells', a hallmark of early atherosclerotic lesions. In hepatocytes and enterocytes, cholesterol esters can be incorporated into apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins for secretion from the cell.
History
EC 2.3.1.26 created 1972, modified 2019
Pathway
ec00100  Steroid biosynthesis
Orthology
K00637  sterol O-acyltransferase
Genes
HSA: 6646(SOAT1) 8435(SOAT2)
PTR: 457553(SOAT1) 737291(SOAT2)
PPS: 100990991(SOAT1) 100991938(SOAT2)
GGO: 101137508(SOAT1) 101143800(SOAT2)
PON: 100436698(SOAT1) 100443060(SOAT2)
NLE: 100590480(SOAT1) 100591122(SOAT2)
MCC: 701171(SOAT2) 716989(SOAT1)
MCF: 102121286(SOAT1) 102135925(SOAT2)
CSAB: 103230515(SOAT1) 103238380(SOAT2)
CATY: 105580285(SOAT2) 105580775(SOAT1)
PANU: 100998458(SOAT1) 101012402(SOAT2)
RRO: 104670609(SOAT2) 104672006(SOAT1)
RBB: 108521617(SOAT2) 108539887(SOAT1)
TFN: 117076693(SOAT1) 117090055(SOAT2)
PTEH: 111541702(SOAT2) 111555313(SOAT1)
CJC: 100387443(SOAT1) 100412165(SOAT2)
SBQ: 101047229(SOAT1) 101052421(SOAT2)
MMUR: 105870615(SOAT2) 105875493(SOAT1)
MMU: 20652(Soat1) 223920(Soat2)
MCAL: 110301596(Soat1) 110310293(Soat2)
MPAH: 110321652(Soat1) 110335070(Soat2)
RNO: 266770(Soat2) 81782(Soat1)
MCOC: 116082223(Soat2) 116101816(Soat1)
MUN: 110552319(Soat2) 110563339(Soat1)
CGE: 100689317(Soat1) 100752385(Soat2)
PLEU: 114696635(Soat2)
NGI: 103728004(Soat1) 103738463(Soat2)
HGL: 101718579(Soat2) 101725301(Soat1)
CCAN: 109684043(Soat2) 109693443(Soat1)
OCU: 100009537(SOAT1) 100349393(SOAT2)
TUP: 102485090(SOAT1) 102501974(SOAT2)
CFA: 486511(SOAT2) 490325(SOAT1)
VVP: 112921168(SOAT2) 112921836(SOAT1)
VLG: 121480399(SOAT2) 121494712(SOAT1)
AML: 100464310(SOAT1) 100466845(SOAT2)
UMR: 103668575(SOAT1) 103675666(SOAT2)
UAH: 113257567(SOAT2) 113262770(SOAT1)
ORO: 101372404(SOAT2) 101377194(SOAT1)
MPUF: 101687685(SOAT2) 101693044(SOAT1)
EJU: 114222870(SOAT1) 114225688(SOAT2)
MLX: 118008807(SOAT2) 118014416(SOAT1)
FCA: 101081271(SOAT1) 101099223(SOAT2)
PYU: 121011872(SOAT1) 121038507(SOAT2)
PBG: 122473464(SOAT2) 122476340(SOAT1)
PTG: 102951570(SOAT2) 102951637(SOAT1)
PPAD: 109249185(SOAT2) 109253480(SOAT1)
AJU: 106977936(SOAT1) 106986455(SOAT2)
HHV: 120247273(SOAT2) 120247467(SOAT1)
BTA: 504287(SOAT1) 513554(SOAT2)
BOM: 102266586(SOAT1) 102286882(SOAT2)
BIU: 109559050(SOAT2) 109570627(SOAT1)
BBUB: 102395575(SOAT2) 102403392(SOAT1)
CHX: 102181472(SOAT2) 102186791(SOAT1)
OAS: 101107179(SOAT2) 101121363(SOAT1) 114117342
ODA: 120858285(SOAT2) 120880520(SOAT1)
CCAD: 122427255(SOAT2) 122452089(SOAT1)
SSC: 100515544(SOAT2) 100628166(SOAT1)
CFR: 102509905(SOAT2) 102517625(SOAT1)
CBAI: 105068919(SOAT1) 105076275(SOAT2)
CDK: 105094576(SOAT2) 105099977(SOAT1)
BACU: 103005265(SOAT2) 103019063(SOAT1)
LVE: 103074467(SOAT1) 103078608(SOAT2)
OOR: 101283408(SOAT1) 101288997(SOAT2)
DLE: 111165675(SOAT1) 111173958(SOAT2)
PCAD: 102977521(SOAT2) 102985612(SOAT1)
ECB: 100050551(SOAT1) 100146367(SOAT2)
EPZ: 103559415(SOAT2) 103566918(SOAT1)
EAI: 106833928(SOAT1) 106835276(SOAT2)
MYB: 102251864(SOAT1) 102258914(SOAT2)
MYD: 102752811(SOAT2) 102760492(SOAT1)
MMYO: 118651668(SOAT2) 118673106(SOAT1)
MNA: 107528134(SOAT2) 107531050(SOAT1)
HAI: 109384905(SOAT1) 109391779(SOAT2)
DRO: 112298110(SOAT1) 112318616(SOAT2)
SHON: 118979108(SOAT1)
AJM: 119043504(SOAT2) 119049583(SOAT1)
MMF: 118624235(SOAT2) 118637878(SOAT1)
PALE: 102897908(SOAT1) 102897972(SOAT2)
PGIG: 120602128(SOAT2) 120617615(SOAT1)
RAY: 107509023(SOAT1) 107509777(SOAT2)
MJV: 108391159(SOAT1) 108402966(SOAT2)
TOD: 119241232(SOAT1) 119247978(SOAT2)
LAV: 100666457(SOAT1) 100670395(SOAT2)
MDO: 100022219(SOAT1)
SHR: 100920315(SOAT1) 100933677(SOAT2)
PCW: 110194139(SOAT2) 110206808(SOAT1)
OAA: 100081816(SOAT2) 100085367(SOAT1)
GGA: 424424(SOAT1)
PCOC: 116230442(SOAT1)
MGP: 100544187(SOAT1)
CJO: 107317265(SOAT1)
NMEL: 110402509(SOAT1)
APLA: 101790922(SOAT1)
ACYG: 106042512(SOAT1)
TGU: 100223763(SOAT1)
LSR: 110478939(SOAT1)
SCAN: 103814788(SOAT1)
PMOA: 120512224(SOAT1)
GFR: 102041188(SOAT1)
FAB: 101815412(SOAT1)
PHI: 102102644(SOAT1)
PMAJ: 107208206(SOAT1)
CCAE: 111932597(SOAT1)
CCW: 104693579(SOAT1)
ETL: 114062572(SOAT1)
FPG: 101919752(SOAT1)
FCH: 102060236(SOAT1)
CLV: 102098103(SOAT1)
EGZ: 104132041(SOAT1)
NNI: 104011338(SOAT1)
ACUN: 113483059(SOAT1)
PADL: 103914031(SOAT1)
AAM: 106484966(SOAT1)
AROW: 112975091(SOAT1)
NPD: 112947695(SOAT1)
DNE: 112983702(SOAT1)
AMJ: 102568578(SOAT1) 102573699
CPOO: 109307171(SOAT1)
GGN: 109286970(SOAT1)
PSS: 102448344(SOAT1) 102450944(SOAT2)
CMY: 102934330(SOAT2) 102943858(SOAT1)
CPIC: 101940194(SOAT2) 101944538(SOAT1)
TST: 117881322(SOAT1) 117889003(SOAT2)
CABI: 116828547(SOAT2) 116834217(SOAT1)
PVT: 110077048(SOAT1)
PBI: 103048435 103064093(SOAT1)
TSR: 106544465(SOAT1) 106557336
PGUT: 117661157(SOAT1) 117666479
XLA: 108708653 108714368(soat1.L) 446863(soat1.S) 779411(soat2.S)
XTR: 100145286(soat1) 100216296(soat2) 101730739
NPR: 108786819(SOAT2) 108800649(SOAT1)
DRE: 564424(soat1) 564868(soat2)
SGH: 107549691 107566412(soat2) 107599004(soat1)
IPU: 108265920(soat1) 108272126
PHYP: 113535230(soat1) 113540941
EEE: 113571647
LCO: 104919967 104929343(soat1)
NCC: 104966663
CGOB: 115007559(soat1) 115007732
ELY: 117253487(soat1) 117257034(soat2)
PLEP: 121941376(soat1) 121957287(soat2)
SLUC: 116051366(soat2) 116055456(soat1)
ECRA: 117942651(soat2) 117950136(soat1)
PFLV: 114554740 114562037(soat1)
GAT: 120823793(soat1) 120834696(soat2)
MSAM: 119885539(soat2) 119900719(soat1)
CUD: 121507035(soat2) 121511848(soat1)
MZE: 101475426 101487179(soat1)
ONL: 100697439 100706988(soat1)
OAU: 116320715(soat2) 116323167(soat1)
OLA: 101162519 101164716(soat1)
OML: 112144903(soat2) 112150835(soat1)
XMA: 102229353(soat1) 102229837
XCO: 114136210 114150622(soat1)
XHE: 116711257(soat2) 116725326(soat1)
PRET: 103464078(soat1) 103464407
CVG: 107100648(soat1) 107103130
CTUL: 119780837(soat1) 119790317(soat2)
NFU: 107385327 107393145(soat1)
KMR: 108230591(soat1) 108231501(soat2)
ALIM: 106512175(soat1) 106514738(soat2)
AOCE: 111563899(soat1) 111583785
CSEM: 103386401 103393235(soat1)
POV: 109625295(soat1) 109635497
LCF: 108881364(soat1) 108884835
SDU: 111223955 111231092(soat1)
SLAL: 111651858(soat1) 111659793
XGL: 120791280(soat1) 120806976(soat2)
HCQ: 109510620 109532427(soat1)
BPEC: 110154556 110160201(soat1)
MALB: 109954616 109967403(soat1)
SASA: 106566146 106613907(soat1)
OTW: 112251021(soat1) 112263222
OMY: 110494785(soat2) 110524440(soat1)
SALP: 111975891(soat1) 112069696
SNH: 120054864(soat1) 120057880(soat2)
ELS: 105007362 105026366(soat1)
SFM: 108919079(soat1) 108928332
PKI: 111835303(soat2) 111848971(soat1)
AANG: 118210915(soat2) 118226300(soat1)
LOC: 102683439 102692222(soat1)
PSPA: 121308925 121330530(soat1)
LCM: 102351870(SOAT1) 102367356(SOAT2)
CMK: 103179969(soat1) 103189932(soat2)
RTP: 109927029(soat1)
BFO: 118424040
BBEL: 109486598
SPU: 583194
APLC: 110974464
DME: Dmel_CG8112(CG8112)
DER: 6552441
DSE: 6607223
DSI: Dsimw501_GD18564(Dsim_GD18564)
DAN: 6500959
DSR: 110188757
DPE: 6594563
DMN: 108155015
DWI: 6647984
DGR: 6564030
DAZ: 108621893
DNV: 108660378
DHE: 111601473
DVI: 6629264
LCQ: 111677357
AAG: 5572188
AALB: 109414895
AME: 552313
ACER: 107994543
BIM: 100740568
BBIF: 117210741
BTER: 100647632
CCAL: 108625512
OBB: 114873905
MGEN: 117225204
NMEA: 116425360
CGIG: 122397367
PBAR: 105426039
VEM: 105561384
HST: 105189309
DQU: 106742888
LHU: 105673784
PGC: 109860842
OBO: 105279911
PCF: 106787777
NVI: 100122384
CSOL: 105364083
MDL: 103570127
CCIN: 107266592
DPA: 109542077
NVL: 108562027
APLN: 108733598
BMOR: 101740142
BMAN: 114250606
MSEX: 115443132
BANY: 112053868
PMAC: 106710838
PPOT: 106109072
PXU: 106128493
PRAP: 110996350
ZCE: 119835008
HAW: 110375674
TNL: 113504657
ZNE: 110828545
CSEC: 111873548
FCD: 110846328
DMK: 116925270
PVM: 113813586
HAME: 121873321
HAZT: 108682478
RSAN: 119398639
RMP: 119161465
TUT: 107364500
CEL: CELE_B0395.2(mboa-1)
CBR: CBG16409
TSP: Tsp_07565
PCAN: 112563801
BGT: 106063279
GAE: 121380781
CRG: 105344142
MYI: 110446400
PMAX: 117343927
OBI: 106877085
EGL: EGR_03337
NVE: 5521639
EPA: 110232256
ATEN: 116304971
ADF: 107331943
AMIL: 114961555
PDAM: 113664737
SPIS: 111333509
DGT: 114516569
SCE: YCR048W(ARE1) YNR019W(ARE2)
ERC: Ecym_2101
KMX: KLMA_30485(ARE2)
NCS: NCAS_0A04580(NCAS0A04580) NCAS_0D04420(NCAS0D04420)
NDI: NDAI_0I00520(NDAI0I00520) NDAI_0K01630(NDAI0K01630)
TPF: TPHA_0H02220(TPHA0H02220)
TBL: TBLA_0F04000(TBLA0F04000) TBLA_0I02260(TBLA0I02260)
TDL: TDEL_0A07320(TDEL0A07320)
KAF: KAFR_0F00800(KAFR0F00800) KAFR_0J02490(KAFR0J02490)
PIC: PICST_33115(ARE2)
CAL: CAALFM_C206940CA(ARE2)
SLB: AWJ20_1276(ARE2)
NTE: NEUTE1DRAFT127291(NEUTE1DRAFT_127291) NEUTE1DRAFT87893(NEUTE1DRAFT_87893)
MGR: MGG_06765
SSCK: SPSK_04973
CMT: CCM_07840
ANI: AN4208.2
ANG: ANI_1_628164(An18g04660)
ABE: ARB_05568
TVE: TRV_06840
SPO: SPAC13G7.05(are1) SPCP1E11.05c(are2)
CNE: CNF01130
CNB: CNBF3580
ABP: AGABI1DRAFT105226(AGABI1DRAFT_105226)
ABV: AGABI2DRAFT185966(AGABI2DRAFT_185966)
MGL: MGL_2868
MRT: MRET_3462
TGO: TGME49_263710(ACAT1A)
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:42927]
  Authors
Spector AA, Mathur SN, Kaduce TL.
  Title
Role of acylcoenzyme A: cholesterol o-acyltransferase in cholesterol metabolism.
  Journal
Prog Lipid Res 18:31-53 (1979)
DOI:10.1016/0163-7827(79)90003-1
Reference
2  [PMID:389289]
  Authors
Taketani S, Nishino T, Katsuki H.
  Title
Characterization of sterol-ester synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 575:148-55 (1979)
DOI:10.1016/0005-2760(79)90140-1
Reference
3  [PMID:9717734]
  Authors
Lee O, Chang CC, Lee W, Chang TY
  Title
Immunodepletion experiments suggest that acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) protein plays a major catalytic role in adult human liver, adrenal gland, macrophages, and kidney, but not in intestines.
  Journal
J Lipid Res 39:1722-7 (1998)
Reference
4  [PMID:9020103]
  Authors
Yang H, Cromley D, Wang H, Billheimer JT, Sturley SL
  Title
Functional expression of a cDNA to human acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase in yeast. Species-dependent substrate specificity and inhibitor sensitivity.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 272:3980-5 (1997)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.272.7.3980
Reference
5  [PMID:9857049]
  Authors
Chang CC, Lee CY, Chang ET, Cruz JC, Levesque MC, Chang TY
  Title
Recombinant acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT-1) purified to essential homogeneity utilizes cholesterol in mixed micelles or in vesicles in a highly cooperative manner.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 273:35132-41 (1998)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.273.52.35132
Reference
6  [PMID:18480028]
  Authors
Das A, Davis MA, Rudel LL
  Title
Identification of putative active site residues of ACAT enzymes.
  Journal
J Lipid Res 49:1770-81 (2008)
DOI:10.1194/jlr.M800131-JLR200
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 2.3.1.26
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 2.3.1.26
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 2.3.1.26
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 2.3.1.26
CAS: 9027-63-8

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