KEGG   ENZYME: 2.5.1.21Help
Entry
EC 2.5.1.21                 Enzyme                                 

Name
squalene synthase;
farnesyltransferase;
presqualene-diphosphate synthase;
presqualene synthase;
squalene synthetase;
farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase;
SQS
Class
Transferases;
Transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other than methyl groups;
Transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other than methyl groups (only sub-subclass identified to date)
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
(2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate:(2E,6E)-farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase
Reaction(IUBMB)
2 (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate + NAD(P)H + H+ = squalene + 2 diphosphate + NAD(P)+ (overall reaction) [RN:R06223];
(1a) 2 (2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate = diphosphate + presqualene diphosphate [RN:R00702];
(1b) presqualene diphosphate + NAD(P)H + H+ = squalene + diphosphate + NAD(P)+ [RN:R02872]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
(2E,6E)-farnesyl diphosphate [CPD:C00448];
NADH [CPD:C00004];
NADPH [CPD:C00005];
H+ [CPD:C00080];
presqualene diphosphate [CPD:C03428]
Product
squalene [CPD:C00751];
diphosphate [CPD:C00013];
NAD+ [CPD:C00003];
NADP+ [CPD:C00006];
presqualene diphosphate [CPD:C03428]
Comment
This microsomal enzyme catalyses the first committed step in the biosynthesis of sterols. The enzyme from yeast requires either Mg2+ or Mn2+ for activity. In the absence of NAD(P)H, presqualene diphosphate (PSPP) is accumulated. When NAD(P)H is present, presqualene diphosphate does not dissociate from the enzyme during the synthesis of squalene from farnesyl diphosphate (FPP) [8]. High concentrations of FPP inhibit the production of squalene but not of PSPP [8].
History
EC 2.5.1.21 created 1976, modified 2005, modified 2012
Pathway
ec00100  Steroid biosynthesis
ec00909  Sesquiterpenoid and triterpenoid biosynthesis
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
ec01130  Biosynthesis of antibiotics
Orthology
K00801  farnesyl-diphosphate farnesyltransferase
Genes
HSA: 2222(FDFT1)
PTR: 740684(FDFT1)
PPS: 100987932(FDFT1)
GGO: 101151217(FDFT1)
PON: 100173463(FDFT1)
NLE: 100603333(FDFT1)
MCC: 696396(FDFT1)
MCF: 102131949(FDFT1)
CSAB: 103215320(FDFT1)
RRO: 104679113(FDFT1)
RBB: 108536688(FDFT1)
CJC: 100405611 100410988(FDFT1)
SBQ: 101048204(FDFT1)
MMU: 14137(Fdft1)
RNO: 29580(Fdft1)
CGE: 100689192(Fdft1)
NGI: 103729974(Fdft1)
HGL: 101709374(Fdft1)
CCAN: 109682022(Fdft1)
OCU: 100345480(FDFT1)
TUP: 102482751(FDFT1)
CFA: 477362(FDFT1)
AML: 100479603(FDFT1)
UMR: 103675932(FDFT1)
ORO: 101375815(FDFT1)
FCA: 101084620(FDFT1)
PTG: 102968349(FDFT1)
AJU: 106975818(FDFT1)
BTA: 281767(FDFT1)
BOM: 102284633(FDFT1)
BIU: 109562774(FDFT1)
PHD: 102318836(FDFT1)
CHX: 102173564(FDFT1)
OAS: 101107770 101119109(FDFT1)
SSC: 100312971(FDFT1)
CFR: 102519424(FDFT1)
CDK: 105101899(FDFT1)
BACU: 102999512(FDFT1)
LVE: 103090735(FDFT1)
OOR: 101283685(FDFT1)
ECB: 100060929(FDFT1)
EPZ: 103558181(FDFT1)
EAI: 106822581(FDFT1)
MYB: 102240587(FDFT1)
MYD: 102770912(FDFT1)
HAI: 109379549(FDFT1)
RSS: 109448131(FDFT1)
PALE: 102883195(FDFT1)
LAV: 100677178(FDFT1)
TMU: 101340573
MDO: 100029000(FDFT1)
SHR: 100920775(FDFT1)
OAA: 100082427(FDFT1)
GGA: 422038(FDFT1)
MGP: 100545674(FDFT1)
CJO: 107306801 107312392(FDFT1)
APLA: 101796770(FDFT1)
ACYG: 106038131(FDFT1)
TGU: 100217567(FDFT1)
GFR: 102034631(FDFT1)
FAB: 101815980(FDFT1)
PHI: 102102388(FDFT1)
PMAJ: 107202506(FDFT1)
CCW: 104696873(FDFT1)
FPG: 101924340(FDFT1)
FCH: 102049604(FDFT1)
CLV: 102084937(FDFT1)
EGZ: 104127262(FDFT1)
AAM: 106483925(FDFT1)
PSS: 102453225(FDFT1) 102453483
CMY: 102929796 102930012(FDFT1)
CPIC: 101942357(FDFT1) 101942618
PVT: 110070449(FDFT1)
PBI: 103051265(FDFT1)
GJA: 107120762(FDFT1)
XLA: 108717235(fdft1.L) 108718290(fdft1.S)
XTR: 100216201(fdft1)
DRE: 571911(fdft1)
SRX: 107735240 107739179(fdft1)
SGH: 107557019(fdft1) 107572582
IPU: 108258919(fdft1)
AMEX: 103034009(fdft1)
TRU: 101070689(fdft1)
LCO: 104930557(fdft1)
NCC: 104947343(fdft1)
MZE: 101480536(fdft1)
OLA: 101165780(fdft1)
XMA: 102222352(fdft1)
PRET: 103457575(fdft1)
NFU: 107377586(fdft1)
CSEM: 103380825(fdft1)
LCF: 108895640(fdft1)
HCQ: 109516774(fdft1)
BPEC: 110171978
SASA: 100380689(fdft1)
ELS: 105006434(fdft1)
SFM: 108924113(fdft1)
LCM: 102352076(FDFT1)
CMK: 103171628(fdft1)
SPU: 586013(fdft1)
APLC: 110975329
SKO: 100368580
LAK: 106150730
AQU: 100641044
ATH: AT4G34640(SQS1) AT4G34650(SQS2)
CIT: 102577972
TCC: 18607702
VRA: 106756236
VAR: 108340525
CCAJ: 109818400
CAM: 101494936
LJA: Lj3g3v3386550.1(Lj3g3v3386550.1) Lj3g3v3386560.1(Lj3g3v3386560.1)
FVE: 101299914
PPER: 18766621
PMUM: 103335730
PAVI: 110768502
ZJU: 107426708
CSV: 101205767
CMO: 103499718
MCHA: 111015463
RCU: 8284359
JCU: 105630097
VVI: 100265798
NNU: 104602023
DOSA: Os03t0805100-01(Os03g0805100) Os07t0200700-01(Os07g0200700)
ATS: 109770541(LOC109770541) 109780431(LOC109780431)
SBI: 8061131
ZMA: 100191601 541614(sqs1)
SITA: 101779179
AOF: 109833377
ATR: 18431444
MNG: MNEG_3837
APRO: F751_6725
SCE: YHR190W(ERG9)
ERC: Ecym_1390
KMX: KLMA_20722(ERG9)
NCS: NCAS_0C00280(NCAS0C00280)
NDI: NDAI_0K00290(NDAI0K00290)
TPF: TPHA_0C04820(TPHA0C04820) TPHA_0I00370(TPHA0I00370)
TBL: TBLA_0D03330(TBLA0D03330)
TDL: TDEL_0B00260(TDEL0B00260)
KAF: KAFR_0L01990(KAFR0L01990)
PIC: PICST_83429(ERG9)
CAL: CAALFM_C208610WA(ERG9)
CDU: CD36_22740(ERG9)
CAUR: QG37_07634
SLB: AWJ20_4389(ERG9)
NCR: NCU06054
NTE: NEUTE1DRAFT67078(NEUTE1DRAFT_67078)
MGR: MGG_09239
MAW: MAC_08985
CMT: CCM_07634
BFU: BCIN_06g02400(Bcerg9)
MBE: MBM_09225
ANI: AN3376.2
ANG: ANI_1_256104(An12g01890)
PBL: PAAG_12679(PAAG_09054)
ABE: ARB_06257
TVE: TRV_00831
PTE: PTT_14326
ZTR: MYCGRDRAFT_65850(ERG9)
SPO: SPBC646.05c(erg9)
CNE: CNC05660
CNB: CNBC1530
ABP: AGABI1DRAFT21221(AGABI1DRAFT_21221)
ABV: AGABI2DRAFT50291(AGABI2DRAFT_50291)
MGL: MGL_3284
DDI: DDB_G0292072(fdfT)
SMIN: v1.2.017867.t1(symbB.v1.2.017867.t1)
FCY: FRACYDRAFT_209449(PSY4)
SPAR: SPRG_06233
LFA: LFA_3652
MCA: MCA0813(sqs)
TIG: THII_3156
NOC: Noc_1321
NHL: Nhal_1310
NWA: Nwat_1203
TEE: Tel_06600
NTT: TAO_1297
AEH: Mlg_2690
HHA: Hhal_2280
HCO: LOKO_03350(crtB)
TAU: Tola_2974
RME: Rmet_5617
BMA: BMAA1840
BMAL: DM55_3941
BMAE: DM78_4853
BMAQ: DM76_4638
BMAI: DM57_06815
BMAF: DM51_3534
BMAZ: BM44_3901
BMAB: BM45_4676
BPS: BPSS0232
BPM: BURPS1710b_A1762(sqs)
BPSE: BDL_6125
BPSM: BBQ_5979
BPSU: BBN_3615
BPSD: BBX_5294
BPK: BBK_5428
BPSH: DR55_5128
BPSA: BBU_5898
BPSO: X996_4894
BUT: X994_4443
BTQ: BTQ_5440
BTJ: BTJ_4096
BTZ: BTL_4908
BTD: BTI_4497
BTV: BTHA_5315
BTHE: BTN_4565
BTHM: BTRA_4830
BTHA: DR62_4674
BTHL: BG87_4897
BOK: DM82_4236
BOC: BG90_3787
BVE: AK36_4090
BCN: Bcen_4104
BCJ: BCAM1397A
BCEN: DM39_3608
BCEW: DM40_4285
BAM: Bamb_3686
BMU: Bmul_4328
BMK: DM80_3507
BMUL: NP80_4290
BCT: GEM_4358
BDL: AK34_4114
BCON: NL30_05675
BUB: BW23_5074
BLAT: WK25_23795
BTEI: WS51_04665
BSEM: WJ12_26785
BMEC: WJ16_25375
BSTG: WT74_25750
BGU: KS03_3775
BGO: BM43_6592
BUK: MYA_4392
BUL: BW21_4019
BXE: Bxe_B0485
BXB: DR64_5820
BPH: Bphy_5450
BFN: OI25_6198
PNU: Pnuc_0189
LIH: L63ED372_01027(crtB_3)
BBAG: E1O_05320
NEU: NE1958(fdfT)
NET: Neut_0403
BPRC: D521_0190
MCG: GL4_3107
AFR: AFE_2125
ACU: Atc_2241
BMQ: BMQ_3872
BMD: BMD_3864
BMEG: BG04_787
BACO: OXB_0648
BEO: BEH_04580
OIH: OB0469
AXL: AXY_13700
LSP: Bsph_2162
VPN: A21D_00748(crtB)
SSP: SSP1103
ESI: Exig_2456
EAN: Eab7_2303
PMW: B2K_24305
ASOC: CB4_02805
SIV: SSIL_2638
SYN: sll0513
SYY: SYNGTS_2857(sll0513)
SYT: SYNGTI_2856(sll0513)
SYS: SYNPCCN_2855(sll0513)
SYQ: SYNPCCP_2855(sll0513)
TEL: tll1096
HHG: XM38_041660(crtB_2)
AMR: AM1_3670
MAR: MAE_33550
MPK: VL20_3202
CYT: cce_1843
TER: Tery_2043
GVI: glr4058
GLJ: GKIL_2412
ANA: alr1805
AVA: Ava_4808
ANB: ANA_C13133(crtB)
CEO: ETSB_0935
AMU: Amuc_0365
AGL: PYTT_1876
BRM: Bmur_0892
BPW: WESB_0660
BIP: Bint_0560
EMI: Emin_0169
FSC: FSU_0391
GAU: GAU_0461
GBA: J421_2363
CABY: Cabys_3345
NDE: NIDE1238
NJA: NSJP_2267
MOX: DAMO_2922
HAL: VNG_0680G(fdfT)
HSL: OE_2014F(fdfT)
HHB: Hhub_1512(fdfT)
HSU: HLASF_1560(fdfT)
HSF: HLASA_1547(fdfT)
HMA: rrnAC1477(fdfT)
HHI: HAH_2050(fdfT)
NMO: Nmlp_1097(fdfT)
HUT: Huta_0934
HTI: HTIA_0787
HMU: Hmuk_0902
HWA: HQ_2353A(fdfT)
HWC: Hqrw_2600(fdfT)
HVO: HVO_1139(fdfT)
HME: HFX_1151(fdfT)
HLA: Hlac_1206
HTU: Htur_1173
NMG: Nmag_2309(fdfT)
NAT: NJ7G_3653
SALI: L593_06570
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:3805037]
  Authors
Kuswik-Rabiega G, Rilling HC.
  Title
Squalene synthetase. Solubilization and partial purification of squalene synthetase, copurification of presqualene pyrophosphate and squalene synthetase activities.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 262:1505-9 (1987)
Reference
2  [PMID:1527001]
  Authors
Ericsson J, Appelkvist EL, Thelin A, Chojnacki T, Dallner G.
  Title
Isoprenoid biosynthesis in rat liver peroxisomes. Characterization of cis-prenyltransferase and squalene synthetase.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 267:18708-14 (1992)
Reference
3  [PMID:11111077]
  Authors
Tansey TR, Shechter I.
  Title
Structure and regulation of mammalian squalene synthase.
  Journal
Biochim Biophys Acta 1529:49-62 (2000)
DOI:10.1016/S1388-1981(00)00137-2
Reference
4  [PMID:8239656]
  Authors
LoGrasso PV, Soltis DA, Boettcher BR.
  Title
Overexpression, purification, and kinetic characterization of a carboxyl-terminal-truncated yeast squalene synthetase.
  Journal
Arch Biochem Biophys 307:193-9 (1993)
DOI:10.1006/abbi.1993.1578
Reference
5  [PMID:1569107]
  Authors
Shechter I, Klinger E, Rucker ML, Engstrom RG, Spirito JA, Islam MA, Boettcher BR, Weinstein DB.
  Title
Solubilization, purification, and characterization of a truncated form of rat hepatic squalene synthetase.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 267:8628-35 (1992)
  Sequence
[rno:29580]
Reference
6  [PMID:26684]
  Authors
Agnew WS, Popjak G.
  Title
Squalene synthetase. Stoichiometry and kinetics of presqualene pyrophosphate and squalene synthesis by yeast microsomes.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 253:4566-73 (1978)
Reference
7  [PMID:10896663]
  Authors
Pandit J, Danley DE, Schulte GK, Mazzalupo S, Pauly TA, Hayward CM, Hamanaka ES, Thompson JF, Harwood HJ Jr.
  Title
Crystal structure of human squalene synthase. A key enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 275:30610-7 (2000)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M004132200
  Sequence
[hsa:2222]
Reference
8  [PMID:10677224]
  Authors
Radisky ES, Poulter CD.
  Title
Squalene synthase: steady-state, pre-steady-state, and isotope-trapping studies.
  Journal
Biochemistry 39:1748-60 (2000)
DOI:10.1021/bi9915014
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 2.5.1.21
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 2.5.1.21
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 2.5.1.21
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 2.5.1.21
CAS: 9077-14-9

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