KEGG   ENZYME: 2.5.1.44Help
Entry
EC 2.5.1.44                 Enzyme                                 

Name
homospermidine synthase
Class
Transferases;
Transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other than methyl groups;
Transferring alkyl or aryl groups, other than methyl groups (only sub-subclass identified to date)
BRITE hierarchy
Sysname
putrescine:putrescine 4-aminobutyltransferase (ammonia-forming)
Reaction(IUBMB)
(1) 2 putrescine = sym-homospermidine + NH3 + H+ [RN:R00018];
(2) putrescine + spermidine = sym-homospermidine + propane-1,3-diamine [RN:R01919]
Reaction(KEGG)
Substrate
putrescine [CPD:C00134];
spermidine [CPD:C00315]
Product
sym-homospermidine [CPD:C06366];
NH3 [CPD:C00014];
H+ [CPD:C00080];
propane-1,3-diamine [CPD:C00986]
Comment
The reaction of this enzyme occurs in three steps, with some of the intermediates presumably remaining enzyme-bound: NAD+-dependent dehydrogenation of putrescine, transfer of the 4-aminobutylidene group from dehydroputrescine to a second molecule of putrescine and reduction of the imine intermediate to form homospermidine. Hence the overall reaction is transfer of a 4-aminobutyl group. Differs from EC 2.5.1.45, homospermidine synthase (spermidine-specific), which cannot use putrescine as donor of the aminobutyl group.
History
EC 2.5.1.44 created 1999, modified 2001
Pathway
ec00960  Tropane, piperidine and pyridine alkaloid biosynthesis
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K00808  homospermidine synthase
Genes
PAU: PA14_35790
PAP: PSPA7_3061
PDK: PADK2_14350
PAES: SCV20265_3124
PAEU: BN889_06565
PST: PSPTO_1868(hss)
PSK: U771_27265
PCZ: PCL1606_20560
PSEM: TO66_21620
PANR: A7J50_5695
SAZ: Sama_3337
AMAL: I607_20267
AMAE: I876_01355
AMAO: I634_01455
AMAI: I635_21559
LPN: lpg2495(hss)
LPH: LPV_2823
LPO: LPO_2687
LPM: LP6_2525(hss)
LPF: lpl2416
LPP: lpp2562
LPC: LPC_1979(hss)
LPA: lpa_03638
LPE: lp12_2487
LLO: LLO_3342(hss)
LHA: LHA_0258(hss) LHA_0415(hss)
LOK: Loa_01233
LCD: clem_13100(hss_1) clem_13105(hss_2) clem_13880(hss_3)
TMC: LMI_1387(hss)
REH: H16_A0043(hss)
CGD: CR3_2929(hss)
CBX: Cenrod_1499(hss)
OFO: BRW83_1089(hss)
BBAG: E1O_25610
PBH: AAW51_2240(hss)
NEU: NE1498(hss)
MLO: mlr3014
MES: Meso_2727
AMIH: CO731_02153(hss)
PLA: Plav_1354
SME: SMc04016(hss)
SMX: SM11_chr2965(hss)
SMI: BN406_02658(hss)
SMEL: SM2011_c04016(hss)
SMER: DU99_15480
SMD: Smed_2688
SFD: USDA257_c52690(hss)
SAME: SAMCFNEI73_Ch3223(hss)
EAD: OV14_0297
ATU: Atu3768
ARA: Arad_3814(hss)
AVI: Avi_3707
RET: RHE_CH03553(hss)
REL: REMIM1_CH03624(hss)
REI: IE4771_CH03866(hss)
REP: IE4803_CH03928(hss)
RLE: RL4073(hss)
RLG: Rleg_3602
RIR: BN877_II0721(hss)
RHL: LPU83_3541(hss)
RGA: RGR602_CH03450(hss)
RHN: AMJ98_CH03777(hss)
RPHA: AMC79_CH03729(hss)
RHT: NT26_2725(hss)
RHX: AMK02_CH03666(hss)
SHZ: shn_15290
BMEL: DK63_2103(hss)
BMEE: DK62_2173(hss)
BMF: BAB2_0077
BABO: DK55_3182(hss)
BABR: DO74_2368(hss)
BABT: DK49_2186(hss)
BABB: DK48_2615(hss)
BABU: DK53_3056(hss)
BABS: DK51_2540(hss)
BABC: DO78_3101(hss)
BMS: BRA0078
BSZ: DK67_2110(hss)
BOV: BOV_A0073
BCS: BCAN_B0081(hss)
BCAR: DK60_2965(hss)
BCAS: DA85_10890
BMR: BMI_II80
BPP: BPI_II80
BPV: DK65_2381(hss)
OAN: Oant_4263
OAH: DR92_3986(hss)
OCH: CES85_5524(hss)
BJA: blr7762
BRA: BRADO6264(hss)
BBT: BBta_1345(hss)
BRS: S23_63280
AOL: S58_64330
BRAD: BF49_3189
BRO: BRAD285_6208(hss)
RPA: RPA0865
RPB: RPB_4552
RPC: RPC_4834
RPD: RPD_0850
RPE: RPE_4799
RPT: Rpal_0933
NWI: Nwi_0921
NHA: Nham_3423
OCA: OCAR_4912
OCG: OCA5_c30420(hss)
OCO: OCA4_c29900(hss)
VGO: GJW-30_1_02467(hss)
XAU: Xaut_2138
AZC: AZC_0296
SNO: Snov_3872
MEX: Mext_2042
MEA: Mex_1p2024(hss)
MDI: METDI2807(hss) METDI4480(hss)
MET: M446_0451
MPO: Mpop_2003
MNO: Mnod_1646
MOR: MOC_5748
META: Y590_09740
BID: Bind_1078
MSL: Msil_1154
BVR: BVIR_716
MSC: BN69_1957
MMED: Mame_01224(hss)
HDI: HDIA_4115
JAN: Jann_0956
DSH: Dshi_2947(hss)
MALG: MALG_02794
RCE: RC1_1718(hss)
MAG: amb2266
MGY: MGMSRv2__1441(hss)
MAGX: XM1_3089(hss)
MAGN: WV31_07945
ALI: AZOLI_1158(hss)
ABS: AZOBR_140285(hss)
TMO: TMO_3104
MAI: MICA_471(hss)
MAN: A11S_454
OTE: Oter_0694
OBG: Verru16b_00850(hss)
PPH: Ppha_0878
MAC: MA_1636
MBAR: MSBR2_0084
MBAK: MSBR3_0145
MMA: MM_0166
MMAC: MSMAC_2495
MHOR: MSHOH_1357
MBN: Mboo_1047
 » show all
Taxonomy
Reference
1  [PMID:437275]
  Authors
Tait GH.
  Title
The formation of homospermidine by an enzyme from Rhodopseudomonas viridis [proceedings]
  Journal
Biochem Soc Trans 7:199-201 (1979)
Reference
2
  Authors
Bottcher, F., Ober, D. and Hartmann, T.
  Title
Biosynthesis of pyrrolizidine alkaloids: putrescine and spermidine are essential substrates of enzymatic homospermidine formation.
  Journal
Can J Chem 72:80-85 (1994)
Reference
3  [PMID:8407874]
  Authors
Yamamoto S, Nagata S, Kusaba K.
  Title
Purification and characterization of homospermidine synthase in Acinetobacter tartarogenes ATCC 31105.
  Journal
J Biochem (Tokyo) 114:45-9 (1993)
Reference
4  [PMID:7470060]
  Authors
Srivenugopal KS, Adiga PR.
  Title
Enzymic synthesis of sym-homospermidine in Lathyrus sativus (grass pea) seedlings.
  Journal
Biochem J 190:461-4 (1980)
Reference
5
  Authors
Ober, D., Tholl, D., Martin, W. and Hartmann, T.
  Title
Homospermidine synthase of Rhodopseudomonas viridis: Substrate specificity and effects of the heterologously expressed enzyme on polyamine metabolism of Escherichia coli.
  Journal
J Gen Appl Microbiol 42:411-419 (1996)
Reference
6  [PMID:10611289]
  Authors
Ober D, Hartmann T.
  Title
Homospermidine synthase, the first pathway-specific enzyme of pyrrolizidine alkaloid biosynthesis, evolved from deoxyhypusine synthase.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 96:14777-82 (1999)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.96.26.14777
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 2.5.1.44
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 2.5.1.44
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 2.5.1.44
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 2.5.1.44
CAS: 76106-84-8

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