KEGG   ENZYME: 2.7.7.69
Entry
EC 2.7.7.69                 Enzyme                                 
Name
GDP-L-galactose/GDP-D-glucose: hexose 1-phosphate guanylyltransferase;
VTC2;
VTC5;
GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase
Class
Transferases;
Transferring phosphorus-containing groups;
Nucleotidyltransferases
Sysname
GDP-beta-L-galactose/GDP-alpha-D-glucose:hexose 1-phosphate guanylyltransferase
Reaction(IUBMB)
(1) GDP-beta-L-galactose + alpha-D-mannose 1-phosphate = beta-L-galactose 1-phosphate + GDP-alpha-D-mannose [RN:R07678];
(2) GDP-alpha-D-glucose + alpha-D-mannose 1-phosphate = alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate + GDP-alpha-D-mannose [RN:R12607]
Reaction(KEGG)
R07678 R12607
Substrate
GDP-beta-L-galactose [CPD:C02280];
alpha-D-mannose 1-phosphate [CPD:C00636];
GDP-alpha-D-glucose [CPD:C00394]
Product
beta-L-galactose 1-phosphate [CPD:C15926];
GDP-alpha-D-mannose [CPD:C00096];
alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate [CPD:C00103]
Comment
This plant enzyme catalyses the conversion of GDP-beta-L-galactose and GDP-alpha-D-glucose to beta-L-galactose 1-phosphate and alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, respectively. The enzyme can use inorganic phosphate as the co-substrate, but several hexose 1-phosphates, including alpha-D-mannose 1-phosphate, alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate, and alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate, are better guanylyl acceptors. The enzyme's activity on GDP-beta-L-galactose is crucial for the biosynthesis of L-ascorbate.
History
EC 2.7.7.69 created 2010, modified 2020
Pathway
ec00053  Ascorbate and aldarate metabolism
ec01100  Metabolic pathways
ec01110  Biosynthesis of secondary metabolites
Orthology
K14190  GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase
Genes
AJM119055988 119060151
ATHAT4G26850(VTC2) AT5G55120(VTC5)
ALY9300451 9303610
CRB17875360 17878615
CSAT104717545 104722245 104726045 104730704 104731426 104761532
EUSEUTSA_v10013622mg EUTSA_v10025206mg
BRP103834830 103851903 103861660 103866673(VTC2)
BNA106361354 106418494 106420809 106421390 106429510 106444877 106445470
BOE106308684 106312359 106327758
RSZ108808645 108842402 108853717
THJ104811624 104813430
CPAP110820751
CIT102612312 102617187 102631172
CICCICLE_v10006850mg CICLE_v10008255mg CICLE_v10013649mg CICLE_v10017717mg
PVY116107393 116117924 116140860 116145226
MINC123197996 123218811 123222433
TCC18593449 18601891
GRA105768479 105781073 105782389
GHI107903465 107917812 107919728 107921993 107932761 121225101
GAB108452928 108453343 108464116 108482914
DZI111275655 111280429 111301584
EGR104423704 104423716 104423718 104448198 104450258 108954081
GMX100785588 100800738 100806541
GSJ114383348 114395384 114402435
PVUPHAVU_006G046700g PHAVU_008G269600g
VRA106765047 106780161
VAR108321941 108338475
VUN114187966 114194178
CCAJ109790922 109811290
APRC113848427 113854098
MTRMTR_3g053020 MTR_5g093390
CAM101497835 101510212
LJALj0g3v0129419.1(Lj0g3v0129419.1) Lj0g3v0268149.1(Lj0g3v0268149.1)
ADU107480942 107482709 107496337
AIP107608900 107624932 107633751
AHF112701936 112720253 112733694 112766070 112790099 112791627
LANG109330267 109338702 109361102
FVE101304522 101307284 101314355
RCN112167903 112180559 112201755
PPER18778931 18781345
PMUM103325236 103326528
PAVI110752830 110755490
PDUL117613627 117624084 117624353
MDM103427292 103446110 103448375
PXB103936301 103940897 103941667 103951401 103952371
ZJU107416252 107416393 107432716
MNT21395683 21408673
CSV101205337
CMO103490128
BHJ120082878 120085765
MCHA111010571 111010781
CMAX111476994 111480581 111495334
CMOS111434140 111442936 111446172
CPEP111783326 111788707 111796491
RCU8262342 8263219 8265518 8287622
JCU105633002 105638608
HBR110648027 110652441 110652492 110669975 110670426 110673415
MESC110600048 110601781 110611232 110623713
POP18099376 7470803 7483618
PEU105123485 105138436 105141239
PALZ118028852 118035364 118056788
JRE108984491 108987964 108993963
QSU111991604 112006093 112009861 112031497
QLO115955469 115969402 115969592 115989746
TWL119985975 119985996 119989022 119989023
VVI100253859 100257803 100262099
VRI117909227 117923648 117930996
SLY101055572(GGP) 101255942(GGP2)
SPEN107011245 107023056
SOT102593176 102596542
SSTN125846607 125872540
CANN107860116 107875751
NTA107759279 107774485 107812832 107825126
NSY104223113 104233088
NTO104085967 104119100
NAU109207148 109211106
INI109162014 109177940
ITR115999799 116029063
SIND105174892 105176671 105177885
OEU111367355 111368795 111376502 111395119
EGT105962045 105968782
SSPL121755827 121759063 121773226 121775762 121783267 121787388
HAN110873602 110910786 110942108
ECAD122590672 122611182
LSV111899617 111907963
CCAV112506506 112514441
DCR108219028 108223630
CSIN114256612 114271581 114274125 114277410 114280109 114308609
BVG104891705 104906838
SOE110790995 110800362
CQI110703610 110720320 110720920
NNU104588033 104588921 104594070 104601771 104609968
MING122065714 122079919 122080169
TSS122644116 122651519 122652848
PSOM113275533 113282078 113288020 113303517
NCOL116257728 116258005
OSA4325042 4351698 4352773
DOSAOs12t0190000-01(Os12g0190000) Os12t0612100-01(Os12g0612100)
OBR102720297 102720660 102721498
BDI100821966 100833569 100842186 100843203
ATS109736377 109741548 109780373 109781055
TDC119269835 119277841 119286345 119295341 119299042 119300690 119307370 119308074
TAES123062830 123071673 123086534 123091368 123096339 123102206 123102767 123110372 123110933 123119397 123120007
TUA125507808 125508235 125545487 125550914
SBI110429682 110433417 8084736
ZMA100272546 100283852
SITA101757506 101780560 101785895
SVS117847953 117857608 117864250
PVIR120666608 120666912 120675751 120696906 120700116
PHAI112884635 112885791 112895978
PDA103700830 103710494 103711043 103717173 103717921 103720528
EGU105033399 105036432 105037736 105038499 105041039 105046718 105048537
MUS103982240 103987203 103987671 103987732 104000762
DCT110100274 110110074 110116602
PEQ110024019 110029876 110035298
AOF109822322 109824188 109846243 109846676 109848340
ATR18433669 18435898
SMOSELMODRAFT_105410 SELMODRAFT_110588 SELMODRAFT_139516 SELMODRAFT_427287 SELMODRAFT_439945 SELMODRAFT_99090
PPP112273041 112276770 112285991
CRECHLRE_13g588150v5
VCNVOLCADRAFT_58668
MNGMNEG_9746
CSLCOCSUDRAFT_13851
CVRCHLNCDRAFT_57139
APROF751_3621
OLUOSTLU_3702
BPGBathy16g00370
MISMICPUN_64582
MPPMICPUCDRAFT_63706
TETTTHERM_000683404
 » show all
Reference
1  [PMID:17462988]
  Authors
Linster CL, Gomez TA, Christensen KC, Adler LN, Young BD, Brenner C, Clarke SG.
  Title
Arabidopsis VTC2 Encodes a GDP-L-Galactose Phosphorylase, the Last Unknown Enzyme in the Smirnoff-Wheeler Pathway to Ascorbic Acid in Plants.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 282:18879-85 (2007)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M702094200
  Sequence
[ath:AT4G26850]
Reference
2  [PMID:17877701]
  Authors
Dowdle J, Ishikawa T, Gatzek S, Rolinski S, Smirnoff N
  Title
Two genes in Arabidopsis thaliana encoding GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase are required for ascorbate biosynthesis and seedling viability.
  Journal
Plant J 52:673-89 (2007)
DOI:10.1111/j.1365-313X.2007.03266.x
  Sequence
Reference
3  [PMID:17950389]
  Authors
Wolucka BA, Van Montagu M.
  Title
The VTC2 cycle and the de novo biosynthesis pathways for vitamin C in plants: an opinion.
  Journal
Phytochemistry 68:2602-13 (2007)
DOI:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.08.034
Reference
4  [PMID:17485667]
  Authors
Laing WA, Wright MA, Cooney J, Bulley SM.
  Title
The missing step of the L-galactose pathway of ascorbate biosynthesis in plants, an L-galactose guanyltransferase, increases leaf ascorbate content.
  Journal
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104:9534-9 (2007)
DOI:10.1073/pnas.0701625104
Reference
5  [PMID:18463094]
  Authors
Linster CL, Adler LN, Webb K, Christensen KC, Brenner C, Clarke SG
  Title
A second GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase in arabidopsis en route to vitamin C. Covalent intermediate and substrate requirements for the conserved reaction.
  Journal
J Biol Chem 283:18483-92 (2008)
DOI:10.1074/jbc.M802594200
  Sequence
Reference
6  [PMID:18516687]
  Authors
Muller-Moule P
  Title
An expression analysis of the ascorbate biosynthesis enzyme VTC2.
  Journal
Plant Mol Biol 68:31-41 (2008)
DOI:10.1007/s11103-008-9350-4
  Sequence
[ath:AT4G26850]
Other DBs
ExplorEnz - The Enzyme Database: 2.7.7.69
IUBMB Enzyme Nomenclature: 2.7.7.69
ExPASy - ENZYME nomenclature database: 2.7.7.69
BRENDA, the Enzyme Database: 2.7.7.69

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